Flipped Learning and E-Learning as Training Models Focused on the Metaverse

Jesús López-Belmonte, Santiago Pozo-Sánchez, Noemí Carmona-Serrano, Antonio-José Moreno-Guerrero


Virtual Learning Environments (EVA) have acquired special importance in the educational field in recent years. The metaverse has been constructed as a learning space with enormous potential. As such, the immersion possibilities of the metaverse increase when compared to other methodologies that already implement technology, such as flipped learning and e-learning. In these learning environments, students require a set of specific abilities and skills. Therefore, this study aims to understand which training approach (flipped learning or e-learning) helps students acquire better skills through a teaching and learning process in the metaverse. This thesis used a pre-post quasi-experimental design of a group containing 173 Spanish high school students to achieve its aim. The data collection has been carried out by the Teaching and Learning Experiences Questionnaire (ETLQ). Among the obtained results, it is discovered that in all the dimensions analyzed, a significant relationship is observed. The greatest difference in means occurs in the LO dimension, meaning that these educational experiences directly impact the student’s academic results. It is concluded that both training approaches are adequate in preparing students for training processes carried out in the metaverse since they complement each other. Therefore, as preliminary instruction, the sequential use of these approaches is necessary when familiarizing students with a new learning reality such as the metaverse.


Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2022-SIED-013

Full Text: PDF


ICT; Educative Technology; Flipped Learning; E-Learning; Metaverse; Learning Environments.


Pokhrel, S., & Chhetri, R. (2021). A Literature Review on Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Teaching and Learning. Higher Education for the Future, 8(1), 133–141. doi:10.1177/2347631120983481.

Turnbull, D., Chugh, R., & Luck, J. (2021). Transitioning to E-Learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: How have Higher Education Institutions responded to the challenge? Education and Information Technologies, 26(5), 6401–6419. doi:10.1007/s10639-021-10633-w.

Alqahtani, A. Y., & Rajkhan, A. A. (2020). E-learning critical success factors during the covid-19 pandemic: A comprehensive analysis of e-learning managerial perspectives. Education Sciences, 10(9), 1–16. doi:10.3390/educsci10090216.

Mishra, L., Gupta, T., & Shree, A. (2020). Online teaching-learning in higher education during lockdown period of COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 1, 100012. doi:10.1016/j.ijedro.2020.100012.

Lassoued, Z., Alhendawi, M., & Bashitialshaaer, R. (2020). An exploratory study of the obstacles for achieving quality in distance learning during the covid-19 pandemic. Education Sciences, 10(9), 1–13. doi:10.3390/educsci10090232.

Bestiantono, D. S., Agustina, P. Z. R., & Cheng, T.-H. (2020). How Students’ Perspectives about Online Learning Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic? Studies in Learning and Teaching, 1(3), 133–139. doi:10.46627/silet.v1i3.46.

Dhawan, S. (2020). Online Learning: A Panacea in the Time of COVID-19 Crisis. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 49(1), 5–22. doi:10.1177/0047239520934018.

Saany, S. I. A., Abu-Ulbeh, W., Al-Sammarraie, N. A., Baker El-Ebiary, Y. A., Hafiz Yusoff, M., Amir Fazamin, W. M. W. H., & Faradillah, Y. (2020). A new E-learning technique using mobility environment. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 68(1), 97–100. doi:10.14445/22315381/CATI1P218.

Birgili, B., Seggie, F. N., & Oğuz, E. (2021). The trends and outcomes of flipped learning research between 2012 and 2018: A descriptive content analysis. Journal of Computers in Education, 8(3), 365–394. doi:10.1007/s40692-021-00183-y.

Lai, H. M. (2021). Understanding what determines university students’ behavioral engagement in a group-based flipped learning context. Computers and Education, 173, 104290. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2021.104290.

Østerlie, O., & Mehus, I. (2020). The impact of flipped learning on cognitive knowledge learning and intrinsic motivation in norwegian secondary physical education. Education Sciences, 10(4), 110. doi:10.3390/educsci10040110.

Öztürk, M., & Çakıroğlu, Ü. (2021). Flipped learning design in EFL classrooms: implementing self-regulated learning strategies to develop language skills. Smart Learning Environments, 8(1), 1–20. doi:10.1186/s40561-021-00146-x.

Bredow, C. A., Roehling, P. V., Knorp, A. J., & Sweet, A. M. (2021). To Flip or Not to Flip? A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Flipped Learning in Higher Education. Review of Educational Research, 91(6), 878–918. doi:10.3102/00346543211019122.

Jdaitawi, M. (2020). Does flipped learning promote positive emotions in science education? A comparison between traditional and flipped classroom approaches. Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 18(6), 516–524. doi:10.34190/JEL.18.6.004.

Nerantzi, C. (2020). The Use of Peer Instruction and Flipped Learning to Support Flexible Blended Learning During and After the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Management and Applied Research, 7(2), 184–195. doi:10.18646/2056.72.20-013.

Zhao, L., He, W., & Su, Y. S. (2021). Innovative Pedagogy and Design-Based Research on Flipped Learning in Higher Education. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 230. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.577002.

Cueva, A., & Inga, E. (2022). Information and Communication Technologies for Education Considering the Flipped Learning Model. Education Sciences, 12(3), 207. doi:10.3390/educsci12030207.

García-Peñalvo, F. J. (2021). Avoiding the dark side of digital transformation in teaching. an institutional reference framework for eLearning in higher education. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(4), 1–17. doi:10.3390/su13042023.

Jayalath, J., & Esichaikul, V. (2022). Gamification to Enhance Motivation and Engagement in Blended eLearning for Technical and Vocational Education and Training. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 27(1), 91–118. doi:10.1007/s10758-020-09466-2.

Syed, A. M., Ahmad, S., Alaraifi, A., & Rafi, W. (2021). Identification of operational risks impeding the implementation of eLearning in higher education system. Education and Information Technologies, 26(1), 655–671. doi:10.1007/s10639-020-10281-6.

Abdul-Rahman Al-Malah, D. K., Hamed, S. I., Haider, Z. H., & ALRikabi, S. (2020). The Interactive Role Using the Mozabook Digital Education Application and its Effect on Enhancing the Performance of eLearning. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(20), 21–41. doi:10.3991/ijet.v15i20.17101.

Jdaitawi, M., Hussein, E. T., Muhaidat, F., & Abu-Joudeh, M. (2022). Probing the Flipped Learning Literature in Social Sciences and Humanities Education. International Journal of Instruction, 15(3), 677–694. doi:10.29333/iji.2022.15337a.

Venieris, G., Cohen, S., Vlismas, O., Naoum, V. C., & Karatzimas, S. (2017). The requirements of different user groups on an online accounting platform. J. for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development, 10(1), 54. doi:10.1504/jibed.2017.082751.

Kucheruk, O. A., Karaman, S. A., Karaman, O. V., & Vinnikova, N. M. (2019). Using ICT tolos for forming profesional competences of future teachers of the Ukrainian language and literature. Information Technologies and Learning Tools, 71(3), 196-214. doi:10.33407/itlt.v71i3.2814.

Cebreiro López, B., Fernández Morante, C., & Arribi Vilela, J. (2017). Formación profesional a distancia: corriendo en la dirección equivocada. Pixel-Bit, Revista de Medios y Educación, 50(50), 65–76. doi:10.12795/pixelbit.2017.i50.04.

Widaningsih, L., Barliana, M. S., Aryanti, T., & Malihah, E. (2018). Inheritance pattern of vocational skills: An ethnographic study on construction workers in Indonesia. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 10(2), 71–81. doi:10.30880/jtet.2018.10.02.007.

Brzezińska, M. (2018). An intuitive app generator and accompanying e-learning modules as examples of successful assistive technology. E-Mentor, 2(74), 19–26. doi:10.15219/em74.1348.

Callan, V. J., Johnston, M. A., Clayton, B., & Poulsen, A. L. (2016). E-assessment: challenges to the legitimacy of VET practitioners and auditors. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 68(4), 416–435. doi:10.1080/13636820.2016.1231214.

Bogusevschi, D., Muntean, C., & Muntean, G. M. (2020). Teaching and learning physics using 3D virtual learning environment: A case study of combined virtual reality and virtual laboratory in secondary school. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 39(1), 5-18.

Reisoğlu, I., Topu, B., Yılmaz, R., Karakuş Yılmaz, T., & Göktaş, Y. (2017). 3D virtual learning environments in education: a meta-review. Asia Pacific Education Review, 18(1), 81–100. doi:10.1007/s12564-016-9467-0.

Falchuk, B., Loeb, S., & Neff, R. (2018). The Social Metaverse: Battle for Privacy. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, 37(2), 52–61. doi:10.1109/MTS.2018.2826060.

Dahan, N. A., Al-Razgan, M., Al-Laith, A., Alsoufi, M. A., Al-Asaly, M. S., & Alfakih, T. (2022). Metaverse Framework: A Case Study on E-Learning Environment (ELEM). Electronics (Switzerland), 11(10), 1–13. doi:10.3390/electronics11101616.

Park, S., Min, K., & Kim, S. (2021). Differences in learning motivation among bartle’s player types and measures for the delivery of sustainable gameful experiences. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(16), 9121. doi:10.3390/su13169121.

Calongne, C., Sheehy, P., & Stricker, A. (2013). Gemeinschaft Identity in a Gesellschaft Metaverse. The Immersive Internet, 180–191. Palgrave Macmillan UK. doi:10.1057/9781137283023_16.

Tarouco, L., Gorziza, B., Correa, Y., Amaral, E. M. H., & Muller, T. (2013). Virtual laboratory for teaching Calculus: An immersive experience. IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON, Berlin, Germany, 774–781. doi:10.1109/EduCon.2013.6530195.

Choi, H-soo, & Kim, S-heon. (2017). A content service deployment plan for metaverse museum exhibitions—Centering on the combination of beacons and HMDs. International Journal of Information Management, 37(1), 1519–1527. doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2016.04.017.

Díaz, J. E. M., Saldaña, C. A. D., & Avila, C. A. R. (2020). Virtual world as a resource for hybrid education. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(15), 94–109. doi:10.3991/ijet.v15i15.13025.

Nurhidayah, N. N., Halim, N., & Basri, M. (2020). Analyzing Student’s Learning Outcome Using Systemic Approach. Asian EFL Journal, 27(41), 230–247.

Schaf, F. M., Paladini, S., & Pereira, C. E. (2012). 3D AutoSysLab prototype. IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON, Marrakech, Morocco. doi:10.1109/EDUCON.2012.6201192.

Ayén, F., & José, F. Qué es la gamificación y el ABJ? Iber: Didáctica de las ciencias sociales. Geografía e Historia, 86, 7–15. Available online: http://hdl.handle.net/11162/189552 (accessed on September 2022).

Erenli, K. (2013). The impact of gamification: Recommending education scenarios. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 8(SPL.ISSUE), 15–21. doi:10.3991/ijet.v8iS1.2320.

Karl M. Kapp, (2012). The Gamification of Learning and Instruction: Game-Based Methods and Strategies for Training and Education, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, United States.

Lee, J. J. C. U., & Hammer, J. C. U. (2011). Gamification in Education: What, How, Why Bother? Academic Exchange Quarterly, 15(2), 146–151.

Lee, J., Park, T., & Davis, R. O. (2022). What affects learner engagement in flipped learning and what predicts its outcomes? British Journal of Educational Technology, 53(2), 211–228. doi:10.1111/bjet.12717.

Pintrich, P., & Schunk, D. (2006). Motivación en contextos educativos: Teoría, investigación y aplicaciones. Pearson: Madrid, Spain.

Zichermann, G., & Cunningham, C. (2011). Gamification by Design Implementing Game Mechanics in Web and Mobile Apps. O’Reilly Media, Inc.: Sebastopol, CA, USA.

Phurikultong, N., & Kantathanawat, T. (2022). Flipping the Undergraduate Classroom to Develop Student Analytical Thinking Skills. Emerging Science Journal, 6(4), 739-757. doi:10.28991/ESJ-2022-06-04-06.

Hsia, L. H., Hwang, G. J., & Lin, C. J. (2022). A WSQ-based flipped learning approach to improving students’ dance performance through reflection and effort promotion. Interactive Learning Environments, 30(2), 229–244. doi:10.1080/10494820.2019.1651744.

Polat, E., Hopcan, S., & Arslantaş, T. K. (2022). The Association between Flipped Learning Readiness, Engagement, Social anxiety, and Achievement in Online Flipped Classrooms: a Structural Equational Modeling. In Education and Information Technologies. Education and Information Tech-nologies. doi:10.1007/s10639-022-11083-8.

Tang, T., Abuhmaid, A. M., Olaimat, M., Oudat, D. M., Aldhaeebi, M., & Bamanger, E. (2020). Efficiency of flipped classroom with online-based teaching under COVID-19. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–12. doi:10.1080/10494820.2020.1817761.

Salas-Pilco, S. Z., Yang, Y., & Zhang, Z. (2022). Student engagement in online learning in Latin American higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review. British Journal of Educational Technology, 53(3), 593–619. doi:10.1111/bjet.13190.

Alajlan, H. A. (2022). Performance, Participation and Perception of Computer Education Students Toward Flipped Learning. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 1–23. doi:10.1007/s10758-022-09590-1.

Sankova, M. V., Kytko, O. V., Vasil’ev, Y. L., Aleshkina, O. Y., Diachkova, E. Y., Darawsheh, H. M., ... & Dydykin, S. S. (2021). Medical students’ reactive anxiety as a quality criterion for distance learning during the SARS-COV-2 pandemic. Emerging Science Journal, 5(Special Issue), 86-93. doi:10.28991/esj-2021-SPER-07.

Ortega-Rodríguez, P. J. (2022). From Extended Reality to The Metaverse: A Critical Reflection on Contributions to Education. Teoria de La Educacion, 34(2), 189–208. doi:10.14201/teri.27864.

Mystakidis, S. (2022). Metaverse. Encyclopedia, 2(1), 486–497. doi:10.3390/encyclopedia2010031.

Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, M. P. (2014). Metodología de la Investigación. McGraw Hill, New York, United States.

Chou, P. N., & Feng, S. T. (2019). Using a tablet computer application to advance high school students’ laboratory learning experiences: A focus on electrical engineering education. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(2), 1–14. doi:10.3390/su11020381.

Yılmaz, A., & Soyer, F. (2018). Effect of physical education and play applications on school social behaviors of mild-level intellectually disabled children. Education Sciences, 8(2), 1–8. doi:10.3390/educsci8020089.

Parra-González, M. E., López-Belmonte, J., Segura-Robles, A., & Moreno-Guerrero, A. J. (2021). Spanish adaptation and validation of the teaching and learning experiences questionnaire. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(7), 3518. doi:10.3390/ijerph18073518.

Jöreskog, K. G. (2001). Analysis of ordinal variables 2: Cross-Sectional Data. Text of the workshop “Structural equation modelling with LISREL 8.51.”, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena: Jena, Germany.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/ESJ-2022-SIED-013


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Jesús López-Belmonte, Santiago Pozo-Sánchez, Noemí Carmona-Serrano, Antonio-José Moreno-Guerrero