Study of Perceived Accessibility in Daily Travel within the Metropolis

Anastasia Vladimirovna Lukina, Roman Roaldovich Sidorchuk, Sergey Vladimirovich Mkhitaryan, Anastasia Alexeevna Stukalova, Irina Ivanovna Skorobogatykh


The growth of metropolises and the number of vehicles cruising within their boundaries creates a permanent problem of dissatisfaction with transport accessibility. This study aims to identify the difference between perceived (PA) and objective (OA) transport accessibility. For its implementation, it was necessary: to explore PA between different residential areas and travel modes, reveal the influence of the travel regime on the PA, compare the impact of social-demographic factors on the individuals' PA. The research methodology is based on a large cross-sectional study with 2,275 respondents. A quota sample was used for 12 administrative districts of the Moscow metropolis. The data was processed by IBM SPSS Statistics 20 statistical program to obtain descriptive statistics indicators. Correlation analysis of the respondent's answers to the four items for PA assessment was performed to assess the relationship between the results of the solutions. Next, a synthetic index of PA was calculated and analyzed differences using the integral index PA. The relationship significance was assessed using F-criterion-based one-way ANOVA. The novelty of our study is as follows: it contributes to previous research on the possibility of measuring perceived affordability in metropolitan areas and benchmarking OA and RA.


Doi: 10.28991/esj-2021-01316

Full Text: PDF


Perceived Accessibility; Urban Transport; Objective Accessibility; Subjective Accessibility; Travel Behavior; Urban Mobility; Metropolis; Transport Research.


Grebennikov, V V, D A Munin, A G Levashev, and A.Ju Mihajlov. “Types of Transport Accessibility".”Institution News. Investments. Building Construction. Real Estate 1, no. 2 (2012): 56–60.

Kommersant. “Moskva Stalamirovymliderom Po Zagruzhennostidorog v 2020 Godu”.” Kommersant, (January 13, 2021).

Moscow in numbers. Brief Statistical Collection (2021). Available online: Москва в цифрах, 2021.pdf (accessed on 20 August 2021).

“Moscow Metro” (2017) Available online: (accessed on 20 August 2021).

Sidorchuk, Roman, Dariya Efimova, Irina Lopatinskaya, and Venera Kaderova. “Parametric Approach to the Assessment of Service Quality Attributes of Municipal Passenger Transport in Moscow.” Modern Applied Science 9, no. 4 (2015): 303–11. doi:10.5539/mas.v9n4p303.

Sidorchuk, Roman, and Irina Skorobogatykh. “Marketing Evaluation of Public Transport Quality Attributes: Review of Two Waves of Research.” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 6, no. 3S3 (2015): 275–82. doi:10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n3s3p275.

Lättman, Katrin, Lars E. Olsson, and Margareta Friman. Development and Test of the Perceived Accessibility Scale (PAC) in Public Transport. Journal of Transport Geography. Vol. 54. International Convention of Psychological Science, 2016. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2016.06.015.

Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport. “Strategic Plan 2016-2020. Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport” (August 8, 2017).

Bogovic, B. “(Development of Transport System).” Suvremeni Promet, (2017). Available online: (accessed on 8 May 2021).

Open budget of Moscow. “Development of Moscow transport system” (2011). Available online: (accessed on 11 January 2021).

Curl, Angela, John D. Nelson, and Jillian Anable. “Same Question, Different Answer: A Comparison of GIS-Based Journey Time Accessibility with Self-Reported Measures from the National Travel Survey in England.” Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 49 (2015): 86–97. doi:10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2013.10.006.

Thériault, Marius, and François Des Rosiers. “Modelling Perceived Accessibility to Urban Amenities Using Fuzzy Logic, Transportation GIS and Origin-Destination Surveys.” In 7th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science, 475–85, 2004.

Lättman, Katrin, Lars E. Olsson, and Margareta Friman. “Development and Test of the Perceived Accessibility Scale (PAC) in Public Transport.” Journal of Transport Geography 54 (2016): 257–63. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2016.06.015.

Kahle, Lynn R., and Naresh K. Malhotra. “Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation.” Journal of Marketing Research, (1994). doi:10.2307/3151953.

S., Mkhitaryan V, and S A Ajvazyan. “Teoriyaveroyatnostiiprikladnayastatistika.” Tome 1 (2001).

Sidorchuk, Roman, Sergey Vladimirovich Mkhitaryan, Irina Ivanovna Skorobogatykh, Anastasia Alekseevna Stukalova, and Anastasia Vladimirovna Lukina. “Modeling of the Need for Parking Space in the Districts of Moscow Metropolis by Using Multivariate Methods.” Journal of Applied Engineering Science 18, no. 1 (2020): 26–39. doi:10.5937/jaes18-23911.

Hansen, Walter G. “How Accessibility Shapes Land Use.” Journal of the American Planning Association 25, no. 2 (1959): 73–76. doi:10.1080/01944365908978307.

Dalvi, M. Q., and K. M. Martin. “The Measurement of Accessibility: Some Preliminary Results.” Transportation 5, no. 1 (1976): 17–42. doi:10.1007/BF00165245.

Geurs, Karst T., and Bert van Wee. “Accessibility Evaluation of Land-Use and Transport Strategies: Review and Research Directions.” Journal of Transport Geography 12, no. 2 (2004): 127–40. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2003.10.005.

Páez, Antonio, Darren M. Scott, and Catherine Morency. “Measuring Accessibility: Positive and Normative Implementations of Various Accessibility Indicators.” Journal of Transport Geography 25 (2012): 141–53. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2012.03.016.

Geurs, Karst T., Andrea De Montis, and Aura Reggiani. “Recent Advances and Applications in Accessibility Modelling.” Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 49 (2015): 82–85. doi:10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2014.09.003.

Park, Keunhyun. “Psychological Park Accessibility: A Systematic Literature Review of Perceptual Components Affecting Park Use.” Landscape Research 42, no. 5 (2017): 508–20. doi:10.1080/01426397.2016.1267127.

Ekkel, E. Dinand, and Sjerp de Vries. “Nearby Green Space and Human Health: Evaluating Accessibility Metrics.” Landscape and Urban Planning 157 (2017): 214–20. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.06.008.

Guagliardo, Mark F. “Spatial Accessibility of Primary Care: Concepts, Methods and Challenges.” International Journal of Health Geographics 3, no. 1 (2004). doi:10.1186/1476-072X-3-3.

Chapman, Susan, and Doug Weir. “Accessibility Planning Methods - NZ Transport Agency Research Report 363,” (2008).

Delafontaine, Matthias, Tijs Neutens, Tim Schwanen, and Nico Van de Weghe. “The Impact of Opening Hours on the Equity of Individual Space-Time Accessibility.” Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 35, no. 4 (2011): 276–88. doi:10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2011.02.005.

Neutens, Tijs, Matthias Delafontaine, Darren M. Scott, and Philippe De Maeyer. “An Analysis of Day-to-Day Variations in Individual Space-Time Accessibility.” Journal of Transport Geography 23 (2012): 81–91. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2012.04.001.

Fransen, Koos, Tijs Neutens, Steven Farber, Philippe De Maeyer, Greet Deruyter, and Frank Witlox. “Identifying Public Transport Gaps Using Time-Dependent Accessibility Levels.” Journal of Transport Geography 48 (2015): 176–87. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2015.09.008.

Tiznado-Aitken, Ignacio, Juan Carlos Muñoz, and Ricardo Hurtubia. “Public Transport Accessibility Accounting for Level of Service and Competition for Urban Opportunities: An Equity Analysis for Education in Santiago de Chile.” Journal of Transport Geography 90 (2021): 102919. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102919.

Allen, Jeff, and Steven Farber. “A Measure of Competitive Access to Destinations for Comparing Across Multiple Study Regions.” Geographical Analysis 52, no. 1 (2020): 69–86. doi:10.1111/gean.12188.

Saif, Muhammad Atiullah, Mohammad Maghrour Zefreh, and Adam Torok. “Public Transport Accessibility: A Literature Review.” Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering 47, no. 1 (2019): 36–43. doi:10.3311/PPtr.12072.

Shi, Yuji, Simon Blainey, Chao Sun, and Peng Jing. “A Literature Review on Accessibility Using Bibliometric Analysis Techniques.” Journal of Transport Geography 87 (2020): 102810. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102810.

Márquez, Luis, Juan C. Poveda, and Luis A. Vega. “Factors Affecting Personal Autonomy and Perceived Accessibility of People with Mobility Impairments in an Urban Transportation Choice Context.” Journal of Transport and Health 14 (2019): 100583. doi:10.1016/j.jth.2019.100583.

Guzman, Luis A., Daniel Oviedo, and Carlos Rivera. “Assessing Equity in Transport Accessibility to Work and Study: The Bogotá Region.” Journal of Transport Geography 58 (2017): 236–46. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2016.12.016.

Guzman, Luis A., and Daniel Oviedo. “Accessibility, Affordability and Equity: Assessing ‘pro-Poor’ Public Transport Subsidies in Bogotá.” Transport Policy 68 (2018): 37–51. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2018.04.012.

Oviedo, Daniel, and Luis A. Guzman. “Revisiting Accessibility in a Context of Sustainable Transport: Capabilities and Inequalities in Bogota.” Sustainability (Switzerland) 12, no. 11 (2020). doi:10.3390/su12114464.

Pot, Felix J., Sierdjan Koster, Taede Tillema, and Peter Jorritsma. “Linking Experienced Barriers during Daily Travel and Transport Poverty in Peripheral Rural Areas: The Case of Zeeland, the Netherlands.” European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research 20, no. 3 (2020): 29–46. doi:10.18757/ejtir.2020.20.3.4076.

Sun, Yeran, and Piyushimita Thakuriah. “Public Transport Availability Inequalities and Transport Poverty Risk across England.” Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 2021. doi:10.1177/2399808321991536.

Schiefelbusch, Martin. “Citizen’s Involvement and the Representation of Passenger Interests in Public Transport: Dimensions of a Long-Neglected Area of Transport Planning and Policy with Case Studies from Germany.” Transport Reviews 25, no. 3 (2005): 261–82. doi:10.1080/0144164042000335904.

Gong, J.W., Y.P. Li, C. Suo, and J. Lv. “Planning Regional Energy System with Consideration of Energy Transition and Cleaner Production under Multiple Uncertainties: A Case Study of Hebei Province, China.” Journal of Cleaner Production 250 (March 2020): 119463. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119463.

Burns, Lawrence D., and Thomas F. Golob. “The Role of Accessibility in Basic Transportation Choice Behavior.” Transportation 5, no. 2 (1976): 175–98. doi:10.1007/BF00167272.

Axhausen, Kay W., and Tommy Gärling. “Activity-Based Approaches to Travel Analysis: Conceptual Frameworks, Models, and Research Problems: Foreign Summaries.” Transport Reviews 12, no. 4 (1992): 323–41. doi:10.1080/01441649208716826.

Pot, Felix Johan, Bert van Wee, and Taede Tillema. “Perceived Accessibility: What It Is and Why It Differs from Calculated Accessibility Measures Based on Spatial Data.” Journal of Transport Geography 94 (2021): 103090. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2021.103090.

Curl, Angela, John D. Nelson, and Jillian Anable. “Does Accessibility Planning Address What Matters? A Review of Current Practice and Practitioner Perspectives.” Research in Transportation Business and Management 2 (2011): 3–11. doi:10.1016/j.rtbm.2011.07.001.

Miller, Eric. “Measuring Accessibility: Methods and Issues” (2020).

Lotfi, Sedigheh, and M. J. Koohsari. “Analyzing Accessibility Dimension of Urban Quality of Life: Where Urban Designers Face Duality between Subjective and Objective Reading of Place.” Social Indicators Research 94, no. 3 (2009): 417–35. doi:10.1007/s11205-009-9438-5.

Lofti, Sedigheh, and Mohammad Javad Koohsari. “Measuring Objective Accessibility to Neighborhood Facilities in the City (A Case Study: Zone 6 in Tehran, Iran).” Cities 26, no. 3 (2009): 133–40. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2009.02.006.

Lättman, Katrin, Lars E. Olsson, Margareta Friman, and Satoshi Fujii. “Perceived Accessibility, Satisfaction with Daily Travel, and Life Satisfaction among the Elderly.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 22 (2019). doi:10.3390/ijerph16224498.

Chaloux, Nick, Geneviève Boisjoly, Emily Grisé, Ahmed El-Geneidy, and David Levinson. “I Only Get Some Satisfaction: Introducing Satisfaction into Measures of Accessibility.” Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 62 (2019): 833–43. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2019.03.008.

Sukhov, Alexandre, Katrin Lättman, Lars E. Olsson, Margareta Friman, and Satoshi Fujii. “Assessing Travel Satisfaction in Public Transport: A Configurational Approach.” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 93 (2021): 102732. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2021.102732.

Friman, Margareta, Katrin Lättman, and Lars E. Olsson. “Carpoolers’ Perceived Accessibility of Carpooling.” Sustainability (Switzerland) 12, no. 21 (2020): 1–13. doi:10.3390/su12218976.

Oña, Juan de, Esperanza Estévez, and Rocío de Oña. “Perception of Public Transport Quality of Service among Regular Private Vehicle Users in Madrid, Spain.” Transportation Research Record 2674, no. 2 (2020): 213–24. doi:10.1177/0361198120907095.

Rosstat. “Women and men of Russia. Statistical collection” (2018).

Lättman, Katrin, Lars E. Olsson, and Margareta Friman. “A New Approach to Accessibility – Examining Perceived Accessibility in Contrast to Objectively Measured Accessibility in Daily Travel.” Research in Transportation Economics 69 (2018): 501–11. doi:10.1016/j.retrec.2018.06.002.

Yandex Maps (2021). Available online: (accessed on 10 October 2021).

The Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations. “World Urbanization Prospects 2018. Highlights” (2019). Available online: (accessed on 10 October 2021).

MOSSTAT. “Moskva v cifrah. Kratkijstatisticheskijsbornik”. Russia (2021).

Lukina Anastasiya. “Prospects and Limitations, Illusions and Facts for the Development of Cycling in Moscow.” Russian Journal of Management 4, no. 3 (2016): 271–80. doi:10.12737/21954.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/esj-2021-01316


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Anastasia Vladimirovna Lukina, Roman Roaldovich Sidorchuk, Sergey Vladimirovich Mkhitaryan, Anastasia Alexeevna Stukalova, Irina Ivanovna Skorobogatykh