Motivational Factors Influencing Telework during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Chittipa Ngamkroeckjoti, Worasak Klongthong, Jakkrit Thavorn


During the COVID-19 pandemic, teleworking has proven to be an effective countermeasure to overcome the spread of this disease while enabling businesses to continue. However, little is known about the extent of their adjustment to daily life routine, interaction among self-control, assignments, family life matters, and coordination with colleagues. This study explores the impact of motivational factors on the performance of teleworkers. An exploratory study was conducted using an in-depth interview with 27 interviewees who work in Thailand and have more than a year of experience switching between being a teleworker and working on-site. The NVivo and SPSS software were performed to reveal deeper data insights and apply non-parametric tests in order to compare findings with various demographic profiles. The findings revealed that environment, time management, and reward are the strongest motivational factors, whereas labour intensity and job security present the weakest relationships with teleworkers’ performance. Numerous implications and strategies to enhance their performance for both organizations and workers are provided. Firms can support a well-prepared environment and manage the flexibility of working time to increase employees’ effectiveness. Moreover, the result-oriented approach can be one of the tools in evaluating their performance rather than attending to their full working time at home.


Doi: 10.28991/esj-2022-SPER-016

Full Text: PDF


COVID-19; Employee Performance; Environment; Job Security; Labor Intensity; Time Management; Reward; Working from Home; Telework; Thailand


International Labour Organization. (2020). COVID-19: Guidance for labour statistics data collection. Available online: (accessed on June 2022).

International Labour Organization. (2020). Teleworking during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond: A practical guide. Available online: (accessed on June 2022).

Pérez, M. P., Sánchez, A. M., & de Luis Carnicer, M. P. (2002). Benefits and barriers of telework: Perception differences of human resources managers according to company’s operations strategy. Technovation, 22(12), 775-783. doi:10.1016/S0166-4972(01)00069-4.

Illegems, V., & Verbeke, A. (2004). Telework: What does it mean for management? Long Range Planning, 37(4), 319-334. doi:10.1016/j.lrp.2004.03.004.

Nunes, F. (2005). Most relevant enablers and constraints influencing the spread of telework in Portugal. New Technology, Work and Employment, 20(2), 133-149. doi:10.1111/j.1468-005X.2005.00149.x.

Morganson, V. J., Major, D. A., Oborn, K. L., Verive, J. M., & Heelan, M. P. (2010). Comparing telework locations and traditional work arrangements. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(6), 578-595. doi:10.1108/02683941011056941.

Haddon, L., & Brynin, M. (2005). The character of telework and the characteristics of teleworkers. New Technology, Work and Employment, 20(1), 34-46. doi:10.1111/j.1468-005X.2005.00142.x.

Mann, S., & Holdsworth, L. (2003). The psychological impact of teleworking: Stress, emotions and health. New Technology, Work and Employment, 18(3), 196-211. doi:10.1111/1468-005X.00121.

Sato, K., & Spinks, W. A. (Eds.). (1998). Telework and Crisis Management in Japan, Routledge, United Kingdom. doi:10.4324/9780203053089.

Kazekami, S. (2020). Mechanisms to improve labor productivity by performing telework. Telecommunications Policy, 44(2), 101868. doi:10.1016/j.telpol.2019.101868.

Nakrošienė, A., Bučiūnienė, I., & Goštautaitė, B. (2019). Working from home: Characteristics and outcomes of telework. International Journal of Manpower, 40(1), 87-101. doi:10.1108/IJM-07-2017-0172.

Hunton, J. E., & Harmon, K. W. (2004). A model for investigating telework in accounting. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, 5(4), 417-427. doi:10.1016/j.accinf.2004.06.003.

Day, F. C., & Burbach, M. E. (2011). Telework considerations for public managers with strategies for increasing utilization. Communications of the IBIMA, 1(1), 1-18. doi:10.5171/2011.880212.

Chumpitaz, R., & Paparoidamis, N. G. (2004). Service quality and marketing performance in business‐to‐business markets: Exploring the mediating role of client satisfaction. Managing Service Quality, 14(2/3), 235-248. doi:10.1108/09604520410528653.

Montoyo, A., Martínez-Barco, P., & Balahur, A. (2012). Subjectivity and sentiment analysis: An overview of the current state of the area and envisaged developments. Decision Support Systems, 53(4), 675-679. doi:10.1016/j.dss.2012.05.022.

Tavares, A. I. (2017). Telework and health effects review. International Journal of Healthcare, 3(2), 30-36. doi:10.5430/ijh.v3n2p30.

Beauregard, T. A., Basile, K. A., & Canonico, E. (2019). Outcomes and Facilitators for Employees from Part V - Technology in Motivation and Performance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Rozentale, S., Grintale, I., Paegle, L., Vanadzins, I., & Matisane, L. (2021). Motivation and challenges of teleworking employees of educational institutions in Latvia during COVID-19. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 23(2), 106-120. doi:10.2478/jtes-2021-0020.

Romeo, M., Yepes-Baldó, M., & Beltrà, L. (2022). Motivation of teleworkers and non-teleworkers in times of COVID-19 in Spain: An exploratory study using non-parametric analysis and classification and regression trees. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 1-14. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2022.852758.

Pajaree, R. (2020). Mckinsey points out that the potential of work from home reflects the readiness of the country. Available online: en&_x_tr_pto=sc (accessed on February 2022).

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54-67. doi:10.1006/ceps.1999.1020.

Criscuolo, C., Nicoletti, G., Gal, P., & Leidecler, T. (2020). Productivity gains from teleworking in the post COVID-19 era: How can public policies make it happen? Available online: (accessed on January 2022).

Solís, M. S. (2016). Telework: Conditions that have a positive and negative impact on the work-family conflict. Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 29(4), 435-449. doi:10.1108/ARLA-10-2015-0289.

Irawanto, D. W., Novianti, K. R., & Roz, K. (2021). Work from home: Measuring satisfaction between work–life balance and work stress during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Economies, 9(3). doi:10.3390/economies9030096.

Nguyen, M. H. (2021). Factors influencing home-based telework in Hanoi (Vietnam) during and after the COVID-19 era. Transportation, 48(6), 3207-3238. doi:10.1007/s11116-021-10169-5.

Pordelan, N., Hosseinian, S., Heydari, H., Khalijian, S., & Khorrami, M. (2021). Consequences of teleworking using the internet among married working women: Educational careers investigation. Education and Information Technologies, 27, 4277-4299. doi:10.1007/s10639-021-10788-6.

Morgan, R. E. (2004). Teleworking: An assessment of the benefits and challenges. European Business Review, 16(4), 344-357. doi:10.1108/09555340410699613.

Chong, S., Huang, Y., & Chang, C.-H. D. (2020). Supporting interdependent telework employees: A moderated-mediation model linking daily COVID-19 task setbacks to next-day work withdrawal. Journal of Applied Psychology, 105(12), 1408-1422. doi:10.1037/apl0000843.

Tavares, F., Santos, E., Diogo, A., & Ratten, V. (2021). Teleworking in Portuguese communities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 15(3), 334-349. doi:10.1108/JEC-06-2020-0113.

Hosoda, M. (2021). Telework amidst the COVID-19 pandemic: Effects on work style reform in Japan. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 21(6), 1059-1071. doi:10.1108/CG-09-2020-0390.

Setyawan, F. E. B., & Lestari, R. (2020). Challenges of stay-at-home policy implementation during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Health Administration, 8(1), 15-20.

Filardi, F., Castro, R. M. P. D., & Zanini, M. T. F. (2020). Advantages and disadvantages of teleworking in Brazilian public administration: Analysis of SERPRO and federal revenue experiences. Cadernos EBAPE.BR 18(1), 28-46. doi:10.1590/1679-395174605x.

Buomprisco, G., Ricci, S., Perri, R., & Sio, S. D. (2021). Health and telework: New challenges after COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 5(2), 1-5. doi:10.21601/ejeph/9705.

Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 331-362. doi:10.1002/job.322.

Brunelle, E., & Fortin, J.-A. (2021). Distance makes the heart grow fonder: An examination of teleworkers’ and office workers’ job satisfaction through the lens of self-determination theory. SAGE Open, 11(1), 1-11. doi:10.1177/2158244020985516.

Lajčin, D., & Porubčanová, D. (2021). Teamwork during the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging Science Journal, 5, 1-10. doi:10.28991/esj-2021-SPER-01.

Akerlof, G. A., & Kranton, R. E. (2010). Identity economics how our identities shape our work, wages, and well-being. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, United States. Available online: (accessed on May 2022).

Lemieux, T., Macleod, W. B., & Parent, D. (2009). Performance pay and wage inequality. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 124(1), 1-49.

Golden, T. D. (2006). The role of relationships in understanding telecommuter satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(3), 319-340. doi:10.1002/job.369.

Carter, D. P., & May, P. J. (2020). Making sense of the U.S. COVID-19 pandemic response: A policy regime perspective. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 42(2), 265-277. doi:10.1080/10841806.2020.1758991.

Sanchez, D. G., Parra, N. G., Ozden, C., & Rijkers, B. (2020). Which jobs are most vulnerable to COVID-19? What an analysis of the European union reveals. World Bank Research and Policy Briefs, 34, 1-7.

Lu, C.-Q., Du, D.-Y., Xu, X.-M., & Zhang, R.-F. (2017). Revisiting the relationship between job demands and job performance: The effects of job security and traditionality. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 90(1), 28-50. doi:10.1111/joop.12158.

Domenighetti, G., D'Avanzo, B., & Bisig, B. (2000). Health effects of job insecurity among employees in the Swiss general population. International Journal of Health Services, 30(3), 477-490. doi:10.2190/B1KM-VGN7-50GF-8XJ4.

Özyaman, F. B. (2007). The effect of job insecurity on anxiety and depression in nurses. Dokuz Eylul University, İzmir, Turkey.

Available online: (accessed on March 2022).

Aarabi, M. S., Subramaniam, I. D., & Akeel, A. B. A. A. B. (2013). Relationship between motivational factors and job performance of employees in Malaysian service industry. Asian Social Science, 9(9), 301-310. doi:10.5539/ass.v9n9p301.

Ward, H. (2017). The impact that working from home has on the overall motivation and performance levels of employees working within a banking organisation. National College of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland. Available online: (accessed on February 2022).

Shahzadi, I., Javed, A., Pirzada, S. S., Nasreen, S., & Khanam, F. (2014). Impact of employee motivation on employee performance. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(23), 159-166.

Purwanto, A., Asbari, M., Fahlevi, M., Mufid, A., Agistiawati, E., Cahyono, Y., & Suryani, P. (2020). Impact of work from home (WFH) on Indonesian teachers performance during the COVID-19 pandemic: An exploratory study. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(5), 6235 - 6244.

Lupu, V. L. (2017). Teleworking and its benefits on work-life balance. International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts-SGEM 4th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM, 24 - 30 August 2017, Albena Co., Bulgaria. doi:10.5593/sgemsocial2017/12/S02.087.

Goldsby, E., Goldsby, M., Neck, C. B., & Neck, C. P. (2020). Under pressure: Time management, self-leadership, and the nurse manager. Administrative Sciences, 10(3). doi:10.3390/admsci10030038.

Ford, R. C., & Butts, M. A. (1991). Is your organization ready for telecommuting? SAM Advanced Management Journal, 56(4), 19.

Thorstensson, E. (2020). The influence of working from home on employees’ productivity. Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden Available online: (accessed on May 2022).

Baltes, B. B., Briggs, T. E., Huff, J. W., Wright, J. A., & Neuman, G. A. (1999). Flexible and compressed workweek schedules: A meta-analysis of their effects on work-related criteria. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(4), 496–513. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.84.4.496.

Gajendran, R. S., & Harrison, D. A. (2007). The good, the bad, and the unknown about telecommuting: Meta-analysis of psychological mediators and individual consequences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(6), 1524–1541. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.6.1524.

Ahmed, F., & Farooqi, Z. (2020). Working from home’s impact on job performance in the it sector. linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Available online: (accessed on February 2022).

Collins, J. H., & Moschler, J. J. (2009). The benefits and limitations of telecommuting. Defense AR Journal, 16(1), 55-66.

Baruch, Y. (2000). Teleworking: Benefits and pitfalls as perceived by professionals and managers. New Technology, Work and Employment, 15(1), 34-49. doi:10.1111/1468-005X.00063.

Grant, C. A., Wallace, L. M., Spurgeon, P. C., Tramontano, C., & Charalampous, M. (2019). Construction and initial validation of the e-work life scale to measure remote e-working. Employee Relations, 41(1), 16-33. doi:10.1108/ER-09-2017-0229.

Maurer, R. (2020). Remote employees are working longer than before. Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), Virginia, United States. Available online: (accessed on February 2022).

Boxall, P., & Macky, K. (2014). High-involvement work processes, work intensification and employee well-being. Work, Employment and Society, 28(6), 963-984. doi:10.1177/0950017013512714.

Aleksić, D., Mihelič, K. K., Černe, M., & Škerlavaj, M. (2017). Interactive effects of perceived time pressure, satisfaction with work-family balance (SWFB), and leader-member exchange (LMX) on creativity. Personnel Review, 46(3), 662-679. doi:10.1108/PR-04-2015-0085.

Burke, R. J., Singh, P., & Fiksenbaum, L. (2010). Work intensity: Potential antecedents and consequences. Personnel Review, 39(3), 347-360. doi:10.1108/00483481011030539.

Burke, R. J., Koyuncu, M., Fiksenbaum, L., & Acar, F. T. (2009). Work hours, work intensity, satisfactions and psychological well-being among Turkish manufacturing managers. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 5(2), 12-30. doi:0.5964/ejop.v5i2.264.

Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2017). The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research (5th Edi.), SAGE Publications, California, United States.

Locke, K. D. (2001). Grounded Theory in Management Research. SAGE Publications, California, United States.

Digest, E. (2021). Third wave of COVID-19. Kasikorn Research Center, Bangkok, Thailand. Available online: (accessed on February 2022).

Owen, W. F. (1984). Interpretive themes in relational communication. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 70(3), 274-287. doi:10.1080/00335638409383697.

Fay, M. J. (2011). Informal communication of co‐workers: A thematic analysis of messages. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, 6(3), 212-229. doi:10.1108/17465641111188394.

Fereday, J., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2006). Demonstrating rigor using thematic analysis: A hybrid approach of inductive and deductive coding and theme development. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1), 80-92. doi:10.1177/160940690600500107.

Kratochwill, T. R., Cook, J. L., Travers, J. F., & Elliott, S. N. (2000). Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning (3rd Edi.). McGraw-Hill.

The Economic Times (2021). Definition of extrinsic rewards. (2021). The Times Group, Mumbai, India. Available online: (accessed on February 2022).

Manzoor, F., Wei, L., & Asif, M. (2021). Intrinsic rewards and employee’s performance with the mediating mechanism of employee’s motivation. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 2691. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.563070.

Sitepu, E. M. P., Appuhami, R., & Su, S. (2020). How does interactive use of budgets affect creativity? Pacific Accounting Review, 32(2), 197-215. doi:10.1108/PAR-05-2019-0054.

Chang, K.-C., Sheu, T. S., Klein, G., & Jiang, J. J. (2010). User commitment and collaboration: Motivational antecedents and project performance. Information and Software Technology, 52(6), 672-679. doi:10.1016/j.infsof.2010.02.003.

Kanama, D., & Nishikawa, K. (2017). Does an extrinsic reward for R&D employees enhance innovation outcomes? Evidence from a Japanese innovation survey. R&D Management, 47(2), 198-211. doi:10.1111/radm.12165.

Yoon, H. J., Sung, S. Y., & Choi, J. N. (2015). Mechanisms underlying creative performance: Employee perceptions of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards for creativity. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 43(7), 1161-1180. doi:10.2224/sbp.2015.43.7.1161.

Su, W., Lyu, B., Chen, H., & Zhang, Y. (2020). How does servant leadership influence employees’ service innovative behavior? The roles of intrinsic motivation and identification with the leader. Baltic Journal of Management, 15(4), 571-586. doi:10.1108/BJM-09-2019-0335.

Deloitte (2020). Addressing the impact of COVID-19: Reward and well-being program impacts. Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, Amsterdam, Netherlands Available online: (accessed on February 2022).

Mongsawad, P. (2012). The philosophy of the sufficiency economy: A contribution to the theory of development. Asia-Pacific Development Journal, 117(1), 123-143.

Mirchandani, K. (2000). The best of both worlds” and “cutting my own throat”: Contradictory images of home-based work. Qualitative Sociology, 23(2), 159-182. doi:10.1023/A:1005448415689.

Lee, Y.-G., Byon, K. K., Ammon, R., & Park, S.-B. R. (2016). Golf product advertising value, attitude toward advertising and brand, and purchase intention. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 44(5), 785-800. doi:10.2224/sbp.2016.44.5.785.

Chalapati, S. (2008). Sufficiency economy as a response to the problem of poverty in Thailand. Asian Social Science, 4(7), 3-6. doi:10.5539/ass.v4n7p3.

Pacheco, T., Coulombe, S., Khalil, C., Meunier, S., Doucerain, M., Auger, É., & Cox, E. (2020). Job security and the promotion of workers’ wellbeing in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic: A study with Canadian workers one to two weeks after the initiation of social distancing measures. International Journal of Wellbeing, 10(3), 58-76. doi:10.5502/ijw.v10i3.1321.

Kord, H., Noushiravani, Y., Bahadori, M. D., & Jahantig, M. (2017). Review and analysis of telework perspective in the administrative systems. Dutch Journal of Finance and Management, 1(2), 1-7. doi:10.29333/djfm/5820.

Wiersma, U. J. (1992). The effects of extrinsic rewards in intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 65(2), 101-114. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8325.1992.tb00488.x.

Kathawala, Y., Moore, K. J., & Elmuti, D. (1990). Preference between salary or job security increase. International Journal of Manpower, 11(7), 25-31. doi:10.1108/01437729010004174.

Bhargava, A., Bester, M., & Bolton, L. (2021). Employees’ perceptions of the implementation of robotics, artificial intelligence, and automation (RAIA) on job satisfaction, job security, and employability. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science, 6(1), 106-113. doi:10.1007/s41347-020-00153-8.

Lim, V. K. G., & Teo, T. S. H. (2000). To work or not to work at home: An empirical investigation of factors affecting attitudes towards teleworking. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 156(5-6), 560-582. doi:10.1108/02683940010373392.

Claessens, B. J. C., van Eerde, W., Rutte, C. G., & Roe, R. A. (2007). A review of the time management literature. Personnel Review, 36(2), 255-276. doi:10.1108/00483480710726136.

Mackolil, J., & Mackolil, J. (2020). Addressing psychosocial problems associated with the COVID-19 lockdown. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 102156. doi:10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102156.

Wang, B., Liu, Y., Qian, J., & Parker, S. K. (2021). Achieving effective remote working during the COVID-19 pandemic: A work design perspective. Applied Psychology, 70(1), 16-59. doi:10.1111/apps.12290.

Riwukore, J. R., Yustini, T., Zamzam, F., & Habaora, F. (2022). Influence of COVID-19 pandemic climate, discipline, motivation to performance in BAERT Kupang city. Management and Economics Journal, 6(1), 1-18.

Pyöriä, P. (2011). Managing telework: Risks, fears and rules. Management Research Review, 34(4), 386-399. doi:10.1108/01409171111117843.

Badrianto, Y., & Ekhsan, M. (2020). Effect of work environment and job satisfaction on employee performance in PT. Nesinak industries. Journal of Business, Management, and Accounting, 2(1), 85-91.

Shaw, W. S., Roelofs, C., & Punnett, L. (2020). Work environment factors and prevention of opioid-related deaths. American Journal of Public Health, 110(8), 1235-1241. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305716.

Komin, S. (1990). Culture and work-related values in Thai organizations. International Journal of Psychology, 25(3-6), 681-704. doi:10.1080/00207599008247921.

Sriussadaporn, R. (2006). Managing international business communication problems at work: A pilot study in foreign companies in Thailand. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 13(4), 330-344. doi:10.1108/13527600610713422.

Asamani, J. A., Amertil, N. P., & Chebere, M. (2015). The influence of workload levels on performance in a rural hospital. British Journal of Healthcare Management, 21(12), 577-586. doi:10.12968/bjhc.2015.21.12.577.

Bruggen, A. (2015). An empirical investigation of the relationship between workload and performance. Management Decision, 53(10), 2377-2389. doi:10.1108/MD-02-2015-0063.

Srimarut, T., & Mekhum, W. (2020). The influence of workload and co-worker attitude on job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical industry in Bangkok, Thailand: The mediating role of training. Systematic Review Pharmacy, 11(2), 603-611.

Silaban, R. L., Handaru, A. W., & Saptono, A. (2021). Effect of workload, competency, and career development on employee performance with organizational commitment intervening variables. The International Journal of Social Sciences World, 3(1), 294-311.

Putithanarak, N., Klongthong, W., Thavorn, J., & Ngamkroeckjoti, C. (2022). Predicting consumers’ repurchase intention of ready-to-drink coffee: A supply chain from Thai producers to retailers. Journal of Distribution Science, 20(5), 105-117. doi: 10.15722/jds.20.05.202205.105.

Feldman, F. (2000). Basic intrinsic value. Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition, 99(3), 319-346.

Venkatesh, V. (2000). Determinants of perceived ease of use: Integrating control, intrinsic motivation, and emotion into the technology acceptance model. Information Systems Research, 11(4), 342-365.

Kunamart, T., & Mai, L. T. A. (2022). COVID-19: Factors that impact on employee performance when working from home. Available online: (accessed on July 2022).

Fronde, N. (2021). Coronavirus (COVID-19) Thailand ranked 3rd to last worldwide on COVID-19 handling. Thaiger: Thailand's News and Information Source, Bangkok, Thailand. Available online: (accessed on June 2022).

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/esj-2022-SPER-016


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Chittipa Ngamkroeckjoti, Suntaree Watcharadamrongkun, Worasak Klongthong, Jakkrit Thavorn