Parametric Study of an Organic Rankine Cycle Using Different Fluids

Rabah Touaibi, Hasan Koten, Ozlem Boydak


This work is an energy study of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for the recovery of thermal energy by comparing three organic fluids. This cycle is considered to be a promising cycle for the conversion of heat into mechanical energy suitable for low temperature heat sources; it uses more volatile organic fluids than water, which generally has high molecular weights, thus allowing operating pressures at temperatures lower than those of the traditional Rankine cycle. A thermodynamic model was developed using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software to determine its performance using different working fluids (toluene, R245fa and R123) under the same operating conditions, taking into account the effect of certain operating parameters and the selection of organic fluids on cycle performance. The results obtained show that the toluene organic fluid has the best thermal efficiency of the cycle compared to the other fluids; 14.38% for toluene, 13.68% for R123 and 13.19 for R245fa.


ORC Cycle; Energy Analysis; Organic Fluids; Performance.


Energy Information Administration (2017). International energyoutlook, USA, Available online: (accessed on 15 November 2019).

Touaibi, R., Köten, H., Feidt, M., & Boydak, O. (2018). Investigation of three Organic Fluids Effects on Exergy Analysis of a Combined Cycle: Organic Rankine Cycle/Vapor Compression Refrigeration. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 52(2), 232-245.

Zhao, Yuanyang, Guangbin Liu, Liansheng Li, Qichao Yang, Bin Tang, and Yunxia Liu. “Expansion Devices for Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Using in Low Temperature Heat Recovery: A Review.” Energy Conversion and Management 199 (November 2019): 111944. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2019.111944.

Braimakis, Konstantinos, and Sotirios Karellas. “Energetic Optimization of Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Configurations.” Energy Conversion and Management 159 (March 2018): 353–370. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2017.12.093.

Heberle, Florian, and Dieter Brüggemann. “Exergy Based Fluid Selection for a Geothermal Organic Rankine Cycle for Combined Heat and Power Generation.” Applied Thermal Engineering 30, no. 11–12 (August 2010): 1326–1332. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2010.02.012.

Liu, Qiang, Yuanyuan Duan, and Zhen Yang. “Performance Analyses of Geothermal Organic Rankine Cycles with Selected Hydrocarbon Working Fluids.” Energy 63 (December 2013): 123–132. doi:10.1016/

Bu, Xianbiao, Lingbao Wang, and Huashan Li. “Performance Analysis and Working Fluid Selection for Geothermal Energy-Powered Organic Rankine-Vapor Compression Air Conditioning.” Geothermal Energy 1, no. 1 (August 23, 2013). doi:10.1186/2195-9706-1-2.

Drescher, Ulli, and Dieter Brüggemann. “Fluid Selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in Biomass Power and Heat Plants.” Applied Thermal Engineering 27, no. 1 (January 2007): 223–228. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2006.04.024.

Taljan, Gregor, Gregor Verbič, Miloš Pantoš, Manfred Sakulin, and Lothar Fickert. “Optimal Sizing of Biomass-Fired Organic Rankine Cycle CHP System with Heat Storage.” Renewable Energy 41 (May 2012): 29–38. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2011.09.034.

Sun, Wenqiang, Xiaoyu Yue, and Yanhui Wang. “Exergy Efficiency Analysis of ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) and ORC-Based Combined Cycles Driven by Low-Temperature Waste Heat.” Energy Conversion and Management 135 (March 2017): 63–73. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2016.12.042.

Rayegan, R., and Y.X. Tao. “A Procedure to Select Working Fluids for Solar Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs).” Renewable Energy 36, no. 2 (February 2011): 659–670. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2010.07.010.

Shaaban, S. “Analysis of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle with Steam and Organic Rankine Cycles as Bottoming Cycles.” Energy Conversion and Management 126 (October 2016): 1003–1012. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2016.08.075.

Feng, Yong-qiang, Tzu-Chen Hung, Ya-Ling He, Qian Wang, Shih-Chi Chen, Shang-Lun Wu, and Chih-Hung Lin. “Experimental Investigation of Lubricant Oil on a 3 kW Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Using R123.” Energy Conversion and Management 182 (February 2019): 340–350. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2018.12.021.

Yu, Haoshui, Donghoi Kim, and Truls Gundersen. “A Study of Working Fluids for Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) Operating Across and Below Ambient Temperature to Utilize Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Cold Energy.” Energy 167 (January 2019): 730–739. doi:10.1016/

Scaccabarozzi, Roberto, Michele Tavano, Costante Mario Invernizzi, and Emanuele Martelli. “Comparison of Working Fluids and Cycle Optimization for Heat Recovery ORCs from Large Internal Combustion Engines.” Energy 158 (September 2018): 396–416. doi:10.1016/

Igobo, O.N., and P.A. Davies. “Isothermal Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Driving Reverse Osmosis (RO) Desalination: Experimental Investigation and Case Study Using R245fa Working Fluid.” Applied Thermal Engineering 136 (May 2018): 740–746. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.02.056.

Klein, S. A. "Engineering equation solver (EES®), v. 7.187-3D." F-Chart Software, Madison, USA (2004).

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/esj-2020-01216


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Rabah touaibi