Evaluation of the Lean Approach Implementation in Engineering Education

Amine Hadek, Soumia Bakkali, Souad Ajana


This study aims to study the benefits of lean approach implementation in engineering education in Morocco by using three concrete case studies to present a comparative analysis between situations with and without Lean approach deployment. The first project focuses on improving internet access. The second project aims to improve the conduct of practicum sessions. The third project aims to identify and improve the performance of the processes implemented in the student affairs department. In this research study, deductive methodology is followed, also called the "hypothetical-deductive approach", First, we presented a synthetic analysis of Lean implementation studies existing in the literature between 2000-2023, then we presented three Lean implementation projects in the engineering school in Morocco. This research work allowed us to present, with concrete cases, the contribution of the approach to engineering education in Morocco, whether it is in the teaching processes or in the support and management processes within an engineering school. The involvement and sensibilization of the resources represent key success factors of this Lean transformation. This research work can serve as a baseline reference for other Lean implementation initiatives in the field of education in Morocco. On the one hand, while examining the literature, we found a scarcity of studies that have presented a comparison between the situation without and with the Lean approach. On the other hand, the Lean approach is a new concept that has never been discussed concretely in the context of Moroccan engineering; the present research fills that gap.


Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2023-07-04-07

Full Text: PDF


This study aims to study the benefits of lean approach implementation in engineering education in Morocco by using three concrete case studies to present a comparative analysis between situations with and without Lean approach deployment. The first projec


Fahim, A., Tan, Q., Bhatti, U. A., Nizamani, M. M., & Nawaz, S. A. (2023). The nexus between higher education and economic growth in Morocco: an empirical investigation using VaR model and VECM. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 82(4), 5709–5723. doi:10.1007/s11042-022-13471-1.

HCP. (2021). Employment and Unemployment: Unemployment Rate Up to 12.3% in Q4-2020. Haut-Commissariat au Plan du Maroc, Centre National de Documentation, Rabat, Morocco. Available online: https://www.hcp.ma/ (accessed on April 2023).

Ouzzine, Z., Laaroussi, A., Ajana, S., & Bakkali, S. (2022). Application of FMEA Method towards Evaluation System of a Moroccan Engineering School. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Review, 4(14), 1-12.

Oustous, O., Ihichr, I., El Idrissi, Y. E. B., & Lahcen, A. A. (2021). Evaluation and Quality Assurance for Higher Education in Morocco: The ANEAQ as the Main Actor. International Society for Technology, Education, and Science, Colorado, United States, 206-218.

Choufari, S., & Sbiti, M. (2023). The impact of COVID-19 on Moroccan companies: a Comparative Study During and Post Pandemic. Journal of Performance Management, 2(1), 81-96.

Balzer, W. K. (2020). Lean Higher Education: Increasing the Value and Performance of University Processes (2nd Ed.). Productivity Press, New York, United States. doi:10.4324/9781351216944.

Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (1997). Lean Thinking—Banish Waste and Create Wealth in your Corporation. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 48(11) 1148-1148. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jors.2600967.

Abdulla, A., & Kavilal, E. G. (2022). Analytical Investigation of Higher Education Quality Improvement by Using Six Sigma Approach. HighTech and Innovation Journal, 3(2), 196-206. doi:10.28991/HIJ-2022-03-02-07.

Robinson, M. and Yorkstone, S. (2014). Becoming a Lean University: the case of the University of St Andrews. Leadership and Governance in Higher Education: Handbook for Decision-Makers and Administrators, 42-72, University of St Andrews Library, St Andrews, Scottland.

Hadek, A., Chaibate, H., Bakkali, S., & Ajana, S. (2019). Sipoc Model in Moroccan Engineering Education Context: Lean Approach. International Journal of Education, 7(1), 47–61. doi:10.5121/ije.2019.7104.

Balzer, W. K., Francis, D. E., Krehbiel, T. C., & Shea, N. (2016). A review and perspective on Lean in higher education. Quality Assurance in Education, 24(4), 442–462. doi:10.1108/QAE-03-2015-0011.

Silva, M. E. A. da, Santos, A. C. de S. G. dos, Reis, A. da C., & Santos, G. N. (2021). Systematic review of lean thinking in education institutions. Independent Journal of Management & Production, 12(9), s865–s882. doi:10.14807/ijmp.v12i9.1637.

Mulyana, I. J., Singgih, M. L., Partiwi, S. G., & Hermanto, Y. B. (2023). Identification and Prioritization of Lean Waste in Higher Education Institutions (HEI): A Proposed Framework. Education Sciences, 13(2), 137. doi:10.3390/educsci13020137.

Lista, A. P., Tortorella, G. L., Bouzon, M., Thürer, M., & Jurburg, D. (2022). Soft and hard skills development in lean management trainings. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 13(5), 1137–1158. doi:10.1108/IJLSS-06-2021-0116.

Allaoui, A., & Benmoussa, R. (2020). Employees’ attitudes toward change with Lean Higher Education in Moroccan public universities. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 33(2), 253–288. doi:10.1108/JOCM-08-2018-0232.

Ait Abdelmalek, I., & Houfaidi, S. (2023). Developing a Measurement Scale of the Public Sector’s Ability to Adopt Lean. Public Organization Review, 23(1), 149–158. doi:10.1007/s11115-022-00610-3.

Alagaraja, M. (2010). Lean Thinking as applied to the adult education environment. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, 10(1), 51. doi:10.1504/ijhrdm.2010.029446.

Phurikultong, N., & Kantathanawat, T. (2022). Flipping the undergraduate classroom to develop student analytical thinking skills. Emerging Science Journal, 6(4), 739-757. doi:10.28991/ESJ-2022-06-04-06.

Betzinger, K., & Wood, B. (2013). Learning lean process improvement, one little change at a time. Business Officer, 46(7), 7-9.

Emiliani, M. L. (2015). Engaging faculty in Lean teaching. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 6(1). doi:10.1108/ijlss-06-2014-0015.

Antony, J. (2014). Readiness factors for the Lean Six Sigma journey in the higher education sector. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 63(2), 257–264. doi:10.1108/IJPPM-04-2013-0077.

Barton, H. (2013). Managing for the future in higher education: a case study on 'lean' implementation within a UK business school. 15th IAMB Conference Proceedings, 17-19 April, 2013, Lisbon, Portugal.

Shaari, M. S., Mohd Nasir, N., Harun, N. H., Muhsain, S. N. F., & Ridzuan, A. R. (2022). Exploring the Relationship between Tertiary Education and Child Maltreatment: An ARDL Analysis. Journal of Human, Earth, and Future, 3(4), 452–464. https://doi.org/10.28991/hef-2022-03-04-05

Dahlgaard, J. J., & Østergaard, P. (2000). TQM and lean thinking in higher education. The Best on Quality: Targets, Improvements, Systems, 11(1), 203-226.

Behm, J., Deseck, M., Gramza, M. and Hermansen, S. (2010), Lean Thinking for Business and Finance, Business and Finance Leadership Academy Action Learning Team, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, United States.

Finn, L., & Geraci, L. (2012). Implementing Lean for process improvement: Strategies and recommendations for process improvement in financial affairs. Education Advisory Board, University Business Executive Roundtable.

Antony, J., Krishan, N., Cullen, D., & Kumar, M. (2012). Lean Six Sigma for higher education institutions (HEIs): Challenges, barriers, success factors, tools/techniques. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 61(8), 940–948. doi:10.1108/17410401211277165.

Dragomir, C., & Surugiu, F. (2013). Implementing lean in a higher education university. Constanta Maritime University, Constanta, Romania, XIII, 18, 279-282.

Radnor, Z., & Bucci, G. (2011). Analysis of lean implementation in UK business schools and universities. Association of Business Schools, 74, London, United Kingdom.

Flumerfelt, S., & Banachowski, M. (2011). Understanding leadership paradigms for improvement in higher education. Quality Assurance in Education, 19(3), 224–247. doi:10.1108/09684881111158045.

Hines, P., & Lethbridge, S. (2008). New development: Creating a lean university. Public Money and Management, 28(1), 53–56. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9302.2008.00619.x.

Holm, M., & Waterbury, T. (2010). Lean and continuous improvement in higher education. Academic Leader, 26(5), 4-5.

Jabir, B., Noureddine, F., Rahmani, K. (2022). Big Data Analytics Opportunities and Challenges for the Smart Enterprise. Distributed Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Studies in Distributed Intelligence, Springer, Cham, Switzerland. doi10.1007/978-3-030-64258-7_70.

Salinas-Navarro, D. E., Garay-Rondero, C. L., & Arana-Solares, I. A. (2023). Digitally Enabled Experiential Learning Spaces for Engineering Education 4.0. Education Sciences, 13(1), 63. doi:10.3390/educsci13010063.

Kokkinou, A., & van Kollenburg, T. (2022). Critical success factors of Lean in Higher Education: an international perspective. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma. doi:10.1108/IJLSS-04-2022-0076.

Khandan, R., & Shannon, L. (2021). The effect of teaching–learning environments on student’s engagement with lean mindset. Education Sciences, 11(9), 466. doi:10.3390/educsci11090466.

Gálová, K., Rajnoha, R., & Ondra, P. (2018). The use of industrial lean management methods in the economics practice: An empirical study of the production companies in the Czech Republic. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 17(1), 93–104. doi:10.17512/pjms.2018.17.1.08.

Fenner, S. V., Arellano, M. C., von Dzengelevski, O., & Netland, T. H. (2023). Effect of lean implementation on team psychological safety and learning. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 43(2), 308–331. doi:10.1108/IJOPM-04-2022-0238.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/ESJ-2023-07-04-07


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Amine HADEK, Souad AJANA, Soumia BAKKALI