The Phenomena of Learning Loss Experienced by Elementary School Students during the Covid-19 Post Pandemic

I Wayan Kertih, I Wayan Widiana, I Gede Wahyu Suwela Antara


The COVID-19 pandemic caused most students to experience learning loss after joining online learning for almost 2 years. Learning loss is a student's condition experiencing learning setbacks academically due to the factors of the non-sustainable educational process. The study aimed at analyzing the learning loss phenomenon experienced by elementary school students in the COVID-19 post-pandemic situation. The study used a descriptive qualitative approach. The population of the study was 401,321 distributed students, and the sample was gained through conducting two sampling techniques, such as random cluster sampling and accidental sampling, with a final sample of 1,104 students. The data collection methodologies conducted were interview, observation, and questionnaire. The questionnaire used contained 15 questions that had been validated before. The data analysis of the study was conducted interactively using 3 techniques, such as data reduction, data display, and drawing conclusions. The descriptive analysis was conducted by using the Guttman scale with the percentage statistic technique. The result of the study showed that there were learning loss phenomena in the post-pandemic situation, a condition seen from the researched dimensions in the low and medium categories. Moreover, a high level of learning loss was found in the rural area. This was observed from several things, such as the learning facilities provided, the parent's role, and the learning methodologies conducted. To resolve learning loss, we need to participate all parties in the learning process, which in this context means mending a good relationship with the community and parents to improve the learning quality, which is assisted with innovative learning models.


Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2023-SPER-014

Full Text: PDF


Learning Loss; Covid-19 Post-Pandemic Situation; Online Learning; Elementary School.


Agung Mahardini, M. M. (2020). Analisis Situasi Penggunaan Google Classroom pada Pembelajaran Daring Fisika. Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika, 8(2), 215. doi:10.24127/jpf.v8i2.3102.

Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, G., Xu, J., Gu, X., Cheng, Z., Yu, T., Xia, J., Wei, Y., Wu, W., Xie, X., Yin, W., Li, H., Liu, M., … Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395(10223), 497–506. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.

Tan, C. M., Owuamalam, C. K., & Sarma, V. (2022). Improving vaccination intent among skeptics through confidence in governments’ handling of the COVID-19 pandemic. Acta Psychologica, 225(2021), 103556. doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2022.103556.

Chamseddine, E., Mansouri, N., Soui, M., & Abed, M. (2022). Handling class imbalance in COVID-19 chest X-ray images classification: Using SMOTE and weighted loss. Applied Soft Computing, 129, 109588. doi:10.1016/j.asoc.2022.109588.

Hartoyo, E., Ariyani, R., Fitri, L., Nurfahmayati, T., Qotrunnada, S.A., & Rahmiati, R. (2022). Studi Deskriptif dan Analitik Covid-19 pada Anak di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Ulin Banjarmasin. Sari Pediatri, 23(5), 290. doi:10.14238/sp23.5.2022.290-8.

Wu, Y. C., Chen, C. S., & Chan, Y. J. (2020). The outbreak of COVID-19: An overview. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 83(3), 217–220. doi:10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000270.

Asmaningrum, N., Ferguson, C., Ridla, A. Z., & Kurniawati, D. (2022). Indonesian hospital’s preparedness for handling COVID-19 in the early onset of an outbreak: A qualitative study of nurse managers. Australasian Emergency Care, 25(3), 253–258. doi:10.1016/j.auec.2022.02.002.

Behera, B. C. (2021). Challenges in handling COVID-19 waste and its management mechanism: A Review. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management, 15, 100432. doi:10.1016/j.enmm.2021.100432.

Syahrani, A., Asfar, D. A., Lubna, S., & Febrianti, B. K. (2021). Leksikon Gejala Covid-19 dalam Bahasa-Bahasa Bidayuhik di Kalimantan Barat. Ranah: Jurnal Kajian Bahasa, 10(2), 341. doi:10.26499/rnh.v10i2.4068. (In Indonesian).

Chang, T. Y., Hong, G., Paganelli, C., Phantumvanit, P., Chang, W. J., Shieh, Y. S., & Hsu, M. L. (2021). Innovation of dental education during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Dental Sciences, 16(1), 15–20. doi:10.1016/j.jds.2020.07.011.

Remuzzi, A., & Remuzzi, G. (2020). COVID-19 and Italy: what next? The Lancet, 395(10231), 1225–1228. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30627-9.

Wong, G. L. H., Wong, V. W. S., Thompson, A., Jia, J., Hou, J., Lesmana, C. R. A., Susilo, A., Tanaka, Y., Chan, W. K., Gane, E., Ong-Go, A. K., Lim, S. G., Ahn, S. H., Yu, M. L., Piratvisuth, T., & Chan, H. L. Y. (2020). Management of patients with liver derangement during the COVID-19 pandemic: an Asia-Pacific position statement. The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 5(8), 776–787. doi:10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30190-4.

Pratama, N. A., & Hidayat, D. (2020). Pengetahuan dan Perilaku Masyarakat Memaknai Social Distancing. Jurnal Digital Media Dan Relationship, 2(1), 1–10. doi:10.51977/jdigital.v2i1.270.

Rhamdan, D., Kule, A., & Al Wahid, S. M. (2021). Analisis Pemanfaatan e-Learning di Masa Pandemi (Studi Kepustakaan: Learning Loss pada Peserta Didik). Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Kewirausahaan, 9(2), 432–446. doi:10.47668/pkwu.v9i2.263.

Mishra, L., Gupta, T., & Shree, A. (2020). Online teaching-learning in higher education during lockdown period of COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 1. doi:10.1016/j.ijedro.2020.100012.

Oyedotun, T. D. (2020). Sudden change of pedagogy in education driven by COVID-19: Perspectives and evaluation from a developing country. Research in Globalization, 2(June), 100029. doi:10.1016/j.resglo.2020.100029.

Patricia Aguilera-Hermida, A. (2020). College students’ use and acceptance of emergency online learning due to COVID-19. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 1. doi:10.1016/j.ijedro.2020.100011.

Sahu, P. (2020). Closure of Universities Due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Impact on Education and Mental Health of Students and Academic Staff. Cureus, 2019(4), 4–9. doi:10.7759/cureus.7541.

Edwards, S., Skouteris, H., Rutherford, L., & Cutter-Mackenzie, A. (2013). “It’s all about Ben10TM”: Children’s play, health and sustainability decisions in the early years. Early Child Development and Care, 183(2), 280–293. doi:10.1080/03004430.2012.671816.

O’Doherty, D., Dromey, M., Lougheed, J., Hannigan, A., Last, J., & McGrath, D. (2018). Barriers and solutions to online learning in medical education - An integrative review. BMC Medical Education, 18(1), 1–11. doi:10.1186/s12909-018-1240-0.

Arnott, L., & Yelland, N. J. (2020). Multimodal lifeworlds: Pedagogies for play inquiries and explorations. Journal of Early Childhood Education Research, 9(1), 124-146.

Dong, C., Cao, S., & Li, H. (2020). Young children’s online learning during COVID-19 pandemic: Chinese parents’ beliefs and attitudes. Children and Youth Services Review, 118(August), 105440. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105440.

Hussein, E., Daoud, S., Alrabaiah, H., & Badawi, R. (2020). Exploring undergraduate students’ attitudes towards emergency online learning during COVID-19: A case from the UAE. Children and Youth Services Review, 119(August), 105699. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105699.

Hwang, G.J., Wang, S.Y., & Lai, C.L. (2021). Effects of a social regulation-based online learning framework on students learning achievements and behaviors in mathematics. Computers and Education, 160, 104031. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2020.104031.

Kkese, E. (2020). McGurk effect and audiovisual speech perception in students with learning disabilities exposed to online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical Hypotheses, 144(July), 110233. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110233.

Lage-Cal, S., Folgueras-Díaz, M. B., Alonso-Hidalgo, M., García-Menéndez, D., & Fernández-García, F. J. (2020). Investigation of the effectiveness of online learning tools for energy performance certificates preparation. Energy Reports, 6, 609–614. doi:10.1016/j.egyr.2019.09.034.

Andel, S. A., de Vreede, T., Spector, P. E., Padmanabhan, B., Singh, V. K., & Vreede, G. J. de. (2020). Do social features help in video-centric online learning platforms? A social presence perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 113(April), 106505. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2020.106505.

Rusli, R., Rahman, A., & Abdullah, H. (2020). Student perception data on online learning using heutagogy approach in the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia. Data in Brief, 29, 105152. doi:10.1016/j.dib.2020.105152.

Ikhtiarini, R., & Wakhid, A. (2021). Description of the Anxiety Level of the Online Learning Process in Elementary School Students during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Jurnal Ilmu Keperawatan Jiwa, 4(4), 879-888. (In Indonesian).

Wegasari, K. (2021). Dampak Pandemi Covid-19 Terhadap Proses Pembelajaran Online di SDN Cabean 3 Demak. Jurnal Penelitian, 15(1), 27. doi:10.21043/jp.v15i1.9109. (In Indonesian).

Windhiyana, E. (2020). Dampak Covid-19 Terhadap Kegiatan Pembelajaran Online Di Perguruan Tinggi Kristen Di Indonesia. Perspektif Ilmu Pendidikan, 34(1), 1–8. doi:10.21009/pip.341.1. (In Indonesian).

Adi, N. N. S., Oka, D. N., & Wati, N. M. S. (2021). Dampak Positif dan Negatif Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh di Masa Pandemi COVID-19. Jurnal Imiah Pendidikan Dan Pembelajaran, 5(1), 43. doi:10.23887/jipp.v5i1.32803. (In Indonesian).

Putria, H., Maula, L. H., & Uswatun, D. A. (2020). Analisis Proses Pembelajaran dalam Jaringan (DARING) Masa Pandemi Covid- 19 Pada Guru Sekolah Dasar. Jurnal Basicedu, 4(4), 861–870. doi:10.31004/basicedu.v4i4.460. (In Indonesian).

Rasmitadila, R., Aliyyah, R. R., Rachmadtullah, R., Samsudin, A., Syaodih, E., Nurtanto, M., & Tambunan, A. R. S. (2020). The perceptions of primary school teachers of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 7(2), 90-109. doi: 10.29333/ejecs/388.

Liu, Q., Huang, J., & Zhou, Z. (2020). Self-expansion via smartphone and smartphone addiction tendency among adolescents: A moderated mediation model. Children and Youth Services Review, 119(June), 105590. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105590.

Rahmawati, M., & Latifah, M. (2020). Gadget Usage, Mother-Child Interaction, and Social-Emotional Development among Preschool Children. Jurnal Ilmu Keluarga Dan Konsumen, 13(1), 75–86. doi:10.24156/jikk.2020.13.1.75.

Samaha, M., & Hawi, N. S. (2016). Relationships among smartphone addiction, stress, academic performance, and satisfaction with life. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 321–325. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.12.045.

Hevia, F. J., Vergara-Lope, S., Velásquez-Durán, A., & Calderón, D. (2022). Estimation of the fundamental learning loss and learning poverty related to COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico. International Journal of Educational Development, 88. doi:10.1016/j.ijedudev.2021.102515.

Wulan Dari, Juwita, A., Widia Sari, K., Anggraini Jayanti, S., & Widayati, S. (2022). Bimbingan Belajar Sebagai Upaya untuk Menghindari Learning Loss di Desa Aji Kagungan Kecamatan Abung Kunang, Kotabumi Lampung Utara. Griya Cendikia, 7(1), 39–45. doi:10.47637/griya-cendikia.v7i1.191. (In Indonesian).

Muzdalifa, E. (2022). Learning Loss as an Impact of Online Learning When Returning to Face-to-Face After the Covid 19 Pandemic. GUAU: Jurnal Pendidikan Profesi Guru Agama Islam, 2(1), 187-192. (In Indonesian).

Pratiwi, W. D. (2021). The dynamics of learning loss: Teachers and parents. Jurnal Edukasi Nonformal, 2(1), 147-153. (In Indonesian).

Alban Conto, C., Akseer, S., Dreesen, T., Kamei, A., Mizunoya, S., & Rigole, A. (2021). Potential effects of COVID-19 school closures on foundational skills and Country responses for mitigating learning loss. International Journal of Educational Development, 87, 102434. doi:10.1016/j.ijedudev.2021.102434.

Angrist, N., de Barros, A., Bhula, R., Chakera, S., Cummiskey, C., DeStefano, J., Floretta, J., Kaffenberger, M., Piper, B., & Stern, J. (2021). Building back better to avert a learning catastrophe: Estimating learning loss from COVID-19 school shutdowns in Africa and facilitating short-term and long-term learning recovery. International Journal of Educational Development, 84, 102397. doi:10.1016/j.ijedudev.2021.102397.

Ardington, C., Wills, G., & Kotze, J. (2021). COVID-19 learning losses: Early grade reading in South Africa. International Journal of Educational Development, 86, 102480. doi:10.1016/j.ijedudev.2021.102480.

Sabates, R., Carter, E., & Stern, J. M. B. (2021). Using educational transitions to estimate learning loss due to COVID-19 school closures: The case of Complementary Basic Education in Ghana. International Journal of Educational Development, 82, 102377. doi:10.1016/j.ijedudev.2021.102377.

Donnelly, R., & Patrinos, H. A. (2022). Learning loss during Covid-19: An early systematic review. Prospects, 51(4), 601–609. doi:10.1007/s11125-021-09582-6.

Engzell, P., Frey, A., & Verhagen, M. D. (2021). Learning loss due to school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(17). doi:10.1073/PNAS.2022376118.

Kuhfeld, M., Soland, J., Tarasawa, B., Johnson, A., Ruzek, E., & Liu, J. (2020). Projecting the Potential Impact of COVID-19 School Closures on Academic Achievement. Educational Researcher, 49(8), 549–565. doi:10.3102/0013189X20965918.

Haser, Ç., Doğan, O., & Kurt Erhan, G. (2022). Tracing students’ mathematics learning loss during school closures in teachers’ self-reported practices. International Journal of Educational Development, 88, 102536. doi:10.1016/j.ijedudev.2021.102536.

Dantes, N. (2012). Research methods. CV ANDI OFFSET, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. (In Indonesian).

Sudaryono. (2015). Educational Research Methods. Prenamedia Group, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Ningsih, W., Yani, A., & Wati, E. (2022). Tantangan Dan Kesulitan Guru, Orang Tua Dan Siswa Dalam Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran Tatap Muka pada Era New Normal Pandemi Covid-19. Al-Mafahim: Jurnal Pendidikan Guru Madrasah Ibtidaiyah, 5(1), 1–7. doi:10.53398/jm.v5i1.116. (In Indonesian).

Emzir, M. (2008). Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan: Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif. PT Raja Grafindo Persada, Kota depok, Indonesia. (In Indonesian).

Murwindra, R., Yuhelman, N., & Musdansi, D. P. (2017). IMPLEMENTASI KURIKULUM 2013 PADA PEMBELAJARAN KIMIA DI SMKN 1 TELUK KUANTAN. JIPVA (Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Veteran), 1(1), 51. doi:10.31331/jipva.v1i1.514. (In Indonesian).

Agung, G. (2014). Educational Research Methodology. Aditya Media Publishing, London, United Kingdom. (In Indonesian).

Bisri, H., & Ichsan, M. (2015). Penilaian otentik dengan teknik nontes di sekolah Dasar. Jurnal Sosial Humaniora, 6(2), 81-93. doi:10.30997/jsh.v6i2.503. (In Indonesian).

Yusuf, A. M. (2017). Educational assessment and evaluation. Prenada Media, Jakarta, Indonesia. (In Indonesian).

Budiaji, W. (2013). The scale of measurement and the number of responses to the Likert scale. Jurnal ilmu pertanian dan perikanan, 2(2), 127-133. (In Indonesian).

Pranatawijaya, V. H., Widiatry, W., Priskila, R., & Putra, P. B. A. A. (2019). Penerapan Skala Likert dan Skala Dikotomi Pada Kuesioner Online. Jurnal Sains Dan Informatika, 5(2), 128–137. doi:10.34128/jsi.v5i2.185. (In Indonesian).

Sugiyono. (2014). Qualitative Research Methods, Quantitative, and R&D. Alfabeta, Bandung, Indonesia. (In Indonesian).

Tohirin. (2012). Qualitative Research Methods In Counseling Education And Guidance. PT Raja Grafindo Persada, Jakarta, Indonesia. (In Indonesian).

Yurnaliza, R., & Andayono, T. (2019). Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Hasil Belajar Mahasiswa Bidikmisi Fakultas Teknik Universitas Negeri Padang. Cived Jurusan Teknik Sipil , 6(4), 3–4. doi:10.24036/cived.v6i4.107046. (In Indonesian).

Budiwibowo, A. K., & Nurhalim, K. (2016). Pengaruh motivasi belajar terhadap prestasi belajar warga belajar kejar paket c. Journal of Nonformal Education, 2(2), 168–174. doi:10.15294/jne.v2i2.6789. (In Indonesian).

Adawiyah, W., Basri, M., & Nur, H. (2018). Pengaruh Kedisiplinan Belajar terhadap Prestasi Belajar Murid Kelas V SD Negeri Sumanna Kecamatan Tamalate Kota Makassar. JKPD (Jurnal Kajian Pendidikan Dasar), 2(1), 234. doi:10.26618/jkpd.v2i1.1083.

Agustiani, I. W. D., Gumartifa, A., & Yaman, H. (2021). Readiness to Learn: Principles Contributing Factors and How it Affects Learning. English Community Journal, 5(2), 112–119. doi:10.32502/ecj.v5i2.3529.

Chorrojprasert, L. (2020). Learner readiness – Why and how should they be ready? LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 13(1), 268–274.

Wulandari, E. T. (2019). The Importance of the Effect of Learning Facilities on Student Learning Achievement. EProsiding Seminar Nasional Biologi VI, 20, 258-261. (In Indonesian).

Handarini, O. I., & Wulandari, S. S. (2020). Pembelajaran Daring Sebagai Upaya Study From Home (SFH) Selama Pandemi Covid 19. Jurnal Pendidikan Administrasi Perkantoran (JPAP), 8(3), 496–503. doi:10.26740/jpap.v8n3.p496-503.

Ricardo, R., & Meilani, R. I. (2017). Impak Minat dan Motivasi Belajar Terhadap Hasil Belajar Siswa. Jurnal Pendidikan Manajemen Perkantoran, 2(2), 79. doi:10.17509/jpm.v2i2.8108. (In Indonesian).

Sulistyawati, E. (2020). Keefektifan pendekatan kontekstual berbasis budaya lokal ditinjau dari prestasi, minat belajar, dan apresiasi terhadap matematika. JP3M (Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Dan Pengajaran Matematika), 6(1), 27–42. doi:10.37058/jp3m.v6i1.1421. (In Indonesian).

Yunitasari, R., & Hanifah, U. (2020). Pengaruh Pembelajaran Daring terhadap Minat Belajar Siswa pada Masa COVID 19. Edukatif: Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan, 2(3), 232–243. doi:10.31004/edukatif.v2i3.142. (In Indonesian).

Budiwibowo, S. (2016). Hubungan Minat Belajar Siswa Dengan Hasil Belajar Ips Di Smp Negeri 14 Kota Madiun. Gulawentah:Jurnal Studi Sosial, 1(1), 60. doi:10.25273/gulawentah.v1i1.66. (In Indonesian).

Effendi, M. (2016). Integrasi Pembelajaran Active Learning dan Internet-Based Learning dalam Meningkatkan Keaktifan dan Kreativitas Belajar. Nadwa: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 7(2), 283–309. doi:10.21580/nw.2013.7.2.563.

Mubayyinah, N., & Ashari, M. Y. (2017). The Effectiveness of the Active Learning Method in Improving Learning Outcomes in Islamic Religious Education for Class XA Students at SMA Darul Ulum 3 Peterongan Jombang. Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 1(1), 76-93. (In Indonesian).

Toha, S. M. (2018). Pelaksanaan Metode Active Learning dalam Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Siswa pada Pembelajaran Pendidikan Agama Islam. Ta’dibuna: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 7(1), 79. doi:10.32832/tadibuna.v7i1.1364. (In Indonesian).

Jojor, A., & Sihotang, H. (2022). Analisis Kurikulum Merdeka dalam Mengatasi Learning Loss di Masa Pandemi Covid-19 (Analisis Studi Kasus Kebijakan Pendidikan). Edukatif: Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan, 4(4), 5150–5161. doi:10.31004/edukatif.v4i4.3106. (In Indonesian).

Sahlan, M., Mursalim, M., Umam, K., & Subakri, S. (2022). The Implementation Of E-Learning To Overcome Learning Loss In Covid-19 Post-Pandemic In Islamic Education At Al-Ma’arif Junior High Jombang-Jember. International Journal of Educational Research & Social Sciences, 3(3), 1138–1144. doi:10.51601/ijersc.v3i3.388.

Dwilamiisa, T. D. P., Vesty Dheacylia Ramadhani, Indah Dita Rinanti, Fidela Cahya Sandani, & Frestise Mangkubumi. (2022). Pengaruh Pelatihan Quantum Learning Untuk Mengatasi Learning Loss Siswa Pasca Pandemi Covid 19. Pusako: Jurnal Pengabdian Psikologi, 1(1), 1–7. doi:10.24036/pusako.v1i1.1.

Susanto, S. (2022). The Challenges of Learning Loss in English Language Learning at Islamic Higher Education in the Post Pandemic. Script Journal: Journal of Linguistics and English Teaching, 7(01), 140–157. doi:10.24903/sj.v7i01.1076.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/ESJ-2023-SPER-014


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 I Wayan Widiana, I Made Made Tegeh, Gede Wira Bayu, I Made Suarjana