Deformation Behaviour of Erodible Soil Stabilized with Cement and Quarry Dust

Arinze Emmanuel Emeka, Agunwamba Jonah Chukwuemeka, Mama Benjamin.Okwudili


This study was carried using finite element software (Plaxis) in studying the Engineering behavior of erodible soil-quarry dust composite at a proportion of 50% quarry dust and 10% cement. It discusses the effects of decorative street light through numerical analysis using the Finite Elements Method. Plaxis program v8.2 was applied to model the soil behavior. The Mohr-Coulomb model reveals that the deformations are concentrated exclusively on the base course, with the appearance of plastic tension cut-off points on base course. The structure was subjected to double point loads of 50 kN/m each which resulted to 100 kN/m. The results shows that the pavement deformed at load 85.16kN/m which showed that the soil strength cannot withhold the pressure from the street light. The load displacement acting on the base of the highway in study is . The result also shows that failure was concentrated at the base course of the pavement. This was due to the presence of underground water beneath the phreatic level. The quarry dust is a good replacement to weak soil or a good additive to help improved a problematic soil. From analysis, the soil strength lies below the effective stress acting on the pavement which is equal to 85.16 kN/m. It is advisable to replace some quantities of the existing soil and be replaced by quarry dust since quarry dust is a waste product from crushing of stones. Lastly, about 30% of the existing soil should be replaced by either the mixture of lateritic soil and quarry dust or the soil there should be used as subbase which may not be economical.


Erodible Soil; Quarry Dust; Soil Improvement; FEM Analysis.


Akpokodje, Enuvie G., A. C. Tse, and Nnamdi Ekeocha. "Gully erosion geohazards in southeastern Nigeria and management implications." Scientia Africana 9, no. 1 (2010): 20-36.

Abdulfatai, I. A., I. A. Okunlola, W. G. Akande, L. O. Momoh, and K. O. Ibrahim. "Review of gully erosion in Nigeria: causes, impacts and possible solutions." Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics 2, no. 3 (2014): 125-129. doi:10.12691/jgg-2-3-8.

E. E, Chikwelu, and Ogbuagu F. U. “Geotechnical Investigation of Soil Around Mbaukwu Gully Erosion Sites, South-Eastern Part of Nigeria.” IOSR Journal of Applied Geology and Geophysics 2, no. 4 (2014): 06–17. doi:10.9790/0990-0240617.

Igbokwe, J. I., J. O. Akinyede, B. Dang, T. Alaga, M. N. Ono, V. C. Nnodu, and L. O. Anike. "Mapping and monitoring of the impact of gully erosion in Southeastern Nigeria with satellite remote sensing and Geographic Information System." The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences 37, no. Part B (2008): 865-71.

Igwe, C.A. “Gully Erosion in Southeastern Nigeria: Role of Soil Properties and Environmental Factors.” Research on Soil Erosion (November 21, 2012). doi:10.5772/51020.

Ezezika, Obidimma C., and Olorunfemi Adetona. "Resolving the gully erosion problem in Southeastern Nigeria: Innovation through public awareness and community-based approaches." Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 2, no. 10 (2011): 286-291.

Osadebe, C. C., T. K. S. Abam, F. I. Obiora, and R. O. Sani. "Evaluating the Stability of Gully Walls in Agulu-Nanka-Oko gully erosion complex area of Anambra State, Nigeria, using empirical approach." Advancement in scientific and Engineering Research, vol2 (1) (2014): 35-43.

Austad “Cement stabilization practice” Cherrybrooke, NSW Australia, Austab, (2012).

Biggs, A. J. W., and K. M. Mahony. "Is soil science relevant to road infrastructure?." In 13th International Soil Conservation Organisation Conference, Conserving soil and water for society: Sharing solutions, Brisbane, ISCO. 2004.

Awad, Islam, Noriyuki Yasufuku, and Hidetoshi Ochiai. "Erosion Rates of Soils Improved by Chemical Additives for Protection against Overland Flow." Memoirs of the Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University 67, no. 4 (2007): 153-164.

Boardman, D. I., S. Glendinning, C. D. F. Rogers, and C. C. Holt. “In Situ Monitoring of Lime-Stabilized Road Subgrade.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1757, no. 1 (January 2001): 3–13. doi:10.3141/1757-01.

Chen, Renpeng, Vincent P. Drnevich, and Radha Krishna Daita. “Short-Term Electrical Conductivity and Strength Development of Lime Kiln Dust Modified Soils.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 135, no. 4 (April 2009): 590–594. doi:10.1061/(asce)1090-0241(2009)135:4(590).

Hassan, M. M., M. Lojander, and O. Ravaska. "Characteristics of soft clay stabilized for construction purposes." In Advances in Transportation Geotechnics, pp. 665-670. CRC Press, 2008.

Indraratna, Buddhima, Thevaragavan Muttuvel, and Hadi Khabbaz. “Investigating Erosional Behaviour of Chemically Stabilised Erodible Soils.” GeoCongress 2008 (March 7, 2008). doi:10.1061/40971(310)83.

Indraratna, Buddhima, Thevaragavan Muttuvel, and Hadi Khabbaz. “Modelling the Erosion Rate of Chemically Stabilized Soil Incorporating Tensile Force – Deformation Characteristics.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal 46, no. 1 (January 2009): 57–68. doi:10.1139/t08-103.

Kitazume, M and Terashi, M. “The deep mixing method” Leiden, The Netherlands, CRC press/Balkema, (2013).

Nalbantoglu, Zalihe, and Erdil Riza Tuncer. “Compressibility and Hydraulic Conductivity of a Chemically Treated Expansive Clay.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal 38, no. 1 (February 2001): 154–160. doi:10.1139/t00-076.

Dhir, R. K., M. J. McCarthy, and P. A. J. Tittle. “Use of Conditioned PFA as a Fine Aggregate Component in Concrete.” Materials and Structures 33, no. 1 (January 2000): 38–42. doi:10.1007/bf02481694.

Sariosseiri, Farid, and Balasingam Muhunthan. “Effect of Cement Treatment on Geotechnical Properties of Some Washington State Soils.” Engineering Geology 104, no. 1–2 (February 2009): 119–125. doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2008.09.003.

Ouhadi, V.R., and A.R. Goodarzi. “Assessment of the Stability of a Dispersive Soil Treated by Alum.” Engineering Geology 85, no. 1–2 (May 2006): 91–101. doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2005.09.042.

EE, Arinze, and Okafor CC. “Finite Element Method of Stability Analysis and Stabilization of Gully Erosion Slopes - A Study of the Otampa Gu.” Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering 07, no. 01 (2017). doi:10.4172/2165-784x.1000267.

Arinze,E.E., Okonkwo,U.N and Ekeoma,E.C “Limit Equilibrium Method of Slope Stability Analysis and Stabilization of Gully Erosion Slope”. Umudike Journal of Engineering Technology (UJET), (2017).

Chetia, Malaya, Manash P. Baruah, and Asuri Sridharan. “Effect of Quarry Dust on Compaction Characteristics of Clay.” Sustainable Civil Infrastructures (July 12, 2017): 78–100. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-61612-4_7.

Chetia, Malaya, and Asuri Sridharan. “A Review on the Influence of Rock Quarry Dust on Geotechnical Properties of Soil.” Geo-Chicago 2016 (August 8, 2016). doi:10.1061/9780784480151.019.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/esj-2018-01157


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Arinze Emmanuel Emeka, J.C Agunwamba, B.O Mama