Gamification from the Viewpoint of Motivational Theory

Kianoosh Karimi, Javad Nickpayam

Abstract


Gamification is defined as the use of game elements and game design techniques in non-game contexts. It is expected that global gamification market will grow to USD $5.5 Billion by 2018. This tremendous market growth relies on basic human instinct to get enticed by both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. This study aims to provide insights into gamification approach from motivation perspective. For this purpose, conceptual foundations of gamification described, including the structure and Benefits of Gamification, and then related motivation theories reviewed.

Keywords


Gamification; Motivation; Engagement; Theories of Motivation.

References


S. Deterding, D. Dixon, . R. Khaled and L. Nacke, "From game design elements to gamefulness: defining gamification," in 15th international academic MindTrek conference: Envisioning future media environments, 2011.

P. Petkov, F. Köbler, M. Foth, R. Medland and H. Krcmar, "Engaging energy saving through motivation-specific social comparison," CHI'11 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1945-1950, 2011.

J. McGonigal, Reality is Broken, New york: Penguin Press, 2011.

J. Simões, R. D. Redondo and A. FernáNdez Vilas, "A social gamification framework for a K-6 learning platform," Computers in Human Behavior 29.2, pp. 345-353, 2013.

J. M. Leimeister, Dienstleistungs- engineering und-management, Verlag: Springer, 2012.

K. Huotari and J. Hamari, "Juho," Proceeding of the 16th International Academic MindTrek Conference. ACM, 2012.

K. Huotari and J. Hamari, "Defining gamification: a service marketing perspective," in the 16th International Academic MindTrek Conference, 2012.

I. Blohm and J. M. Leimeister, "Design of IT-based enhancing services for motivational support and behavioral change," Business & Information Systems Engineering , pp. 275-278, 2013.

R. M. Ryan and D. Edward L, "Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being," American psychologist 55, no. 1, pp. 68-78, 2000.

D. Guinea, A. Ortiz and M. Lynne Markus, "Why break the habit of a lifetime? Rethinking the roles of intention, habit, and emotion in continuing information technology use," Mis Quarterly, 2009.

J. Simões, R. Rebeca DíAz and A. FernáNdez Vilas, "A social gamification framework for a K-6 learning platform," Computers in Human Behavior 29, no. 2, 2013.

C. v. den Berg, "Gamify a Contact Center," University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 14 Juli 2014.

G. Zichermann and C. Cunningham, Gamification by design: Implementing game mechanics in web and mobile apps, Sebastopol: O'Reilly Media, 2011.

E. L. Deci, R. Koestner and R. M. Ryan, "A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation," Psychological bulletin 125, no. 6, pp. 627-668, 1999.

C. I. Muntean, "Raising engagement in e-learning through gamification," in In Proc. 6th International Conference on Virtual Learning ICVL, 2011.

K. Ling, G. Beenen, P. Ludford, X. Wang, K. Chang and X. L. Dan Cosley, "Using social psychology to motivate contributions to online communities," in Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication 10, no. 4, 2005.

T. W. Malone, "Toward a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction," Cognitive science 5, no. 4, pp. 333-369, 1981.

P. Sweetser and P. Wyeth, "GameFlow: a model for evaluating player enjoyment in games," Computers in Entertainment (CIE) 3, no. 3 , 2005.

N. Yee, "The labor of fun how video games blur the boundaries of work and play," Games and Culture 1, no. 1, pp. 68-71, 2006.

J. Vassileva, "Motivating participation in social computing applications: a user modeling perspective," User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 22, no. 1-2 , pp. 177-201, 2012.

R. M. Ryan and L. D. Edward, "Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions," Contemporary educational psychology 25, no. 1, pp. 54-67, 2000.

S. Lilienfeld, S. Jay Lynn, L. Namy, N. Woolf, G. Jamieson, A. Marks and V. Slaughter, "Psychology: From inquiry to understanding," Pearson Higher Education AU, 2009.

A. H. Maslow, "A theory of human motivation," Psychological review 50.4 , p. 370, 1943.

A. C. Siang and R. Krishna Rao, "Theories of learning: a computer game perspective," Multimedia Software Engineering. Proceedings. Fifth International Symposium on, pp. 239-245, 2003.

F. L. Greitzer, O. Anna Kuchar and . K. Huston, "Cognitive science implications for enhancing training effectiveness in a serious gaming context," Journal on Educational Resources in Computing (JERIC) 7, no. 3, 2003.

J. W. Atkinson and . L. George H, Achievement motive and test anxiety conceived as motive to approach success and motive to avoid failure, The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 1960.

J. G. Nicholls, Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance, Psychological review 91, 1984.

B. Medler, "Player dossiers: Analyzing gameplay data as a reward," Game Studies 11.1, 2011.

M. Montola, T. Nummenmaa, A. Lucero, M. Boberg and H. Korhonen, "Applying game achievement systems to enhance user experience in a photo sharing service," In Proceedings of the 13th International MindTrek Conference: Everyday Life in the Ubiquitous Era, pp. 94-97, 2009.

E. A. Locke, K. N. Shaw, L. M. Saari and G. P. Latham, "Goal setting and task performance: 1969–1980.," Psychological bulletin 90, no. 1 , 1981.

E. A. Locke and G. P. Latham, A theory of goal setting & task performance, Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1990.

A. Bandura, "Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change," Psychological review 84, no. 2, 1977.

Schwarzer, Ralf, Judith Bäßler, Patricia Kwiatek, Kerstin Schröder, and Jian Xin Zhang. "The assessment of optimistic self‐beliefs: comparison of the German, Spanish, and Chinese versions of the general self‐efficacy scale." Applied Psychology 46, no. 1 (1997): 69-88.

T. Reiners and L. Wood, Gamification in education and business. Springer, 2014.

Festinger, Leon. "A theory of social comparison processes." Human relations 7, no. 2 (1954): 117-140.

Wood, Joanne V. "Theory and research concerning social comparisons of personal attributes." Psychological bulletin 106, no. 2 (1989): 231.

Gilbert, Daniel T., R. Brian Giesler, and Kathryn A. Morris. "When comparisons arise." Journal of personality and social psychology 69, no. 2 (1995): 227.

T. A. Schilling and C. T. Hayashi, "Achievement motivation among high school basketball and cross-country athletes: A personal investment perspective," Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 13, no. 1, pp. 103-128, 2001.

K. L. Granzin and . M. Marlys J, "Motivating participation in exercise: Using personal investment theory," NA-Advances in Consumer Research Volume 26, 1999.

D. S. McNamara, G. T. Jackson and A. C. Graesser., "Intelligent tutoring and games (ITaG)," Gaming for classroom-based learning: Digital role-playing as a motivator of study, 2010.

D. Pavlas, A model of flow and play in game-based learning: The impact of game characteristics, player traits, and player states, Doctoral dissertation, University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida, 2010.

Vansteenkiste, Vansteenkiste, Willy Lens, Hans Witte, and N. T. Feather. "Understanding unemployed people's job search behaviour, unemployment experience and well‐being: A comparison of expectancy‐value theory and self‐determination theory." British journal of social psychology 44, no. 2 (2005): 269-287.

J. A. Shepperd, "Social loafing and expectancy-value theory," In Multiple perspectives on the effects of evaluation on performance, pp. 1-24, 2001.

Eccles, Jacquelynne S., and Allan Wigfield. "Motivational beliefs, values, and goals." Annual review of psychology 53, no. 1 (2002): 109-132.

Wigfield, Allan. "Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation: A developmental perspective." Educational Psychology Review 6, no. 1 (1994): 49-78.

Wigfield, Allan, and Jacquelynne S. Eccles. "Expectancy–value theory of achievement motivation." Contemporary educational psychology 25, no. 1 (2000): 68-81.

B. F. Skinner, "The experimental analysis of behavior," American scientist, pp. 343-371, 1957.

Jablonsky, Stephen F., and David L. DeVries. "Operant conditioning principles extrapolated to the theory of management." Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 7, no. 2 (1972): 340-358.

Gillison, Fiona B., Martyn Standage, and Suzie M. Skevington. "Relationships among adolescents' weight perceptions, exercise goals, exercise motivation, quality of life and leisure-time exercise behaviour: a self-determination theory approach." Health Education Research 21, no. 6 (2006): 836-847.

Rigby, C. Scott, and Andrew K. Przybylski. "Virtual worlds and the learner hero: How today's video games can inform tomorrow's digital learning environments." School Field 7, no. 2 (2009): 214-223.

Wang, Chee Keng John, Angeline Khoo, Woon Chia Liu, and Shanti Divaharan. "Passion and intrinsic motivation in digital gaming." CyberPsychology & Behavior 11, no. 1 (2008): 39-45.

Przybylski, Andrew K., C. Scott Rigby, and Richard M. Ryan. "A motivational model of video game engagement." Review of general psychology 14, no. 2 (2010): 154.

Osheim, Darcy E. " This could be a game!": Defining gamification for the classroom. San Jose State University, 2013.


Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/esj-2017-01114

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Kianoosh Karimi, Javad Nickpayam