Increasing Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and the Requirement for Competence and Training

Setyo Riyanto, Unang Toto Handiman, Mikaria Gultom, Adriani Gunawan, Juniawan M. Putra, Hendro Budiyanto


Many studies have examined the relationship between training and employee job satisfaction, the relationship between employee training and organizational commitment, the relationship between competence and employee job satisfaction, and the relationship between competence and organizational commitment, but there are still many unanswered questions. In particular, research has not explained how training and competence directly affect job satisfaction and managerial competence and how training and competence indirectly affect organizational commitment through job satisfaction. Therefore, this study investigates how training and competence directly affect job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Indirectly, training and competence affect organizational commitment through job satisfaction. Survey-based data collection was collected by purposive sampling, which included 280 employees from BPJS who participated in the training. The findings from the path analysis, along with measurements and structural tests, are very supportive of the employee training program. The findings show that employee training and competence directly affect job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The findings also show that training and employee competence indirectly affect organizational commitment through job satisfaction. Finally, employee job satisfaction affects managerial competence. This study shows that employee training is an effective way for organizations to achieve their goals.


Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2023-07-02-016

Full Text: PDF


Training; Competence; Job Satisfaction; Organizational Commitment.


Grant, R. M. (1996). Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17(S2), 109–122. doi:10.1002/smj.4250171110.

Hitt, M. A., Bierman, L., Shimizu, K., & Kochhar, R. (2001). Direct and moderating effects of human capital on strategy and performance in professional service firms: A resource-based perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 44(1), 13–28. doi:10.2307/3069334.

Kehoe, R. R., & Wright, P. M. (2013). The Impact of High-Performance Human Resource Practices on Employees’ Attitudes and Behaviors. Journal of Management, 39(2), 366–391. doi:10.1177/0149206310365901.

Caught, K., Shadur, M. A., & Rodwell, J. J. (2000). The measurement artifact in the organizational commitment questionnaire. Psychological Reports, 87(3 Part 1), 777–788. doi:10.2466/pr0.2000.87.3.777.

Pollock, T. G., Whitbred, R. C., & Contractor, N. (2000). Social information processing and job characteristics: A simultaneous test of two theories with implications for job satisfaction. Human Communication Research, 26(2), 292–330. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.2000.tb00759.x.

Brunetto, Y., Farr-Wharton, R., & Shacklock, K. (2012). Communication, training, well-being, and commitment across nurse generations. Nursing Outlook, 60(1), 7–15. doi:10.1016/j.outlook.2011.04.004.

Aboramadan, M., Albashiti, B., Alharazin, H., & Dahleez, K. A. (2020). Human resources management practices and organizational commitment in higher education: The mediating role of work engagement. International Journal of Educational Management, 34(1), 154–174. doi:10.1108/IJEM-04-2019-0160.

Farouk, S., Abu Elanain, H. M., Obeidat, S. M., & Al-Nahyan, M. (2016). HRM practices and organizational performance in the UAE banking sector: The mediating role of organizational innovation. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 65(6), 773–791. doi:10.1108/IJPPM-01-2016-0010.

Qazi, S., & Jeet, V. (2016). Impact of Prevailing HRM Practices on Job Satisfaction: A Comparative Study of Public and Private Higher Educational Institutions in India. International Journal of Business and Management, 12(1), 178. doi:10.5539/ijbm.v12n1p178.

Rodriguez, J., & Walters, K. (2017). The importance of training and development in employee performance and evaluation. World Wide Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 3(10), 206-212.

Khaemba, V. (2017). Effect of Training and Development on Employee Performance at Kakamega County General Hospital, Kenya. PhD Thesis, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.

Hussain, S., Onyema, E. M., Masood, A., & Nwoye, O. U. (2020). Influence of training and learning on employees’ Productivity in service sector in Pakistan. American Journal of Business, 8(1), 11-17.

Abdulla, J., Djebarni, R., & Mellahi, K. (2011). Determinants of job satisfaction in the UAE. Personnel Review, 40(1), 126–146. doi:10.1108/00483481111095555.

Hanaysha, J., & Tahir, P. R. (2016). Examining the Effects of Employee Empowerment, Teamwork, and Employee Training on Job Satisfaction. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 219, 272–282. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.05.016.

Ocen, E., Francis, K., & Angundaru, G. (2017). The role of training in building employee commitment: the mediating effect of job satisfaction. European Journal of Training and Development, 41(9), 742–757. doi:10.1108/EJTD-11-2016-0084.

Kanapathipillai, K., & Azam, S. F. (2020). The impact of employee training programs on job performance and job satisfaction in the telecommunication companies in Malaysia. European Journal of Human Resource Management Studies, 4(3), 1-17.

Campion, M. A., Fink, A. A., Ruggeberg, B. J., Carr, L., Phillips, G. M., & Odman, R. B. (2011). Doing competencies well: Best practices in competency modeling. Personnel Psychology, 64(1), 225–262. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2010.01207.x.

Nkosi, S. M. (2015). Effects of training on employee commitment, retention and performance: A case study of a Local Municipality in South Africa. European Journal of Business and Management, 7(15), 104-108.

Ashar, M., Ghafoor, M., Munir, E., & Hafeez, S. (2013). The Impact of Perceptions of Training on Employee Commitment and Turnover Intention: Evidence from Pakistan. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 3(1), 74. doi:10.5296/ijhrs.v3i1.2924.

Vasudevan, H. (2014). Examining the relationship of training on job satisfaction and organizational effectiveness. International Journal of Management and Business Research, 4(3), 185–202.

Kooij, D. T. A. M., & Boon, C. (2018). Perceptions of HR practices, person–organisation fit, and affective commitment: The moderating role of career stage. Human Resource Management Journal, 28(1), 61–75. doi:10.1111/1748-8583.12164.

Bulut, C., & Culha, O. (2010). The effects of organizational training on organizational commitment. International Journal of Training and Development, 14(4), 309–322. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2419.2010.00360.x.

Bashir, N., & Long, C. S. (2015). The relationship between training and organizational commitment among academicians in Malaysia. Journal of Management Development, 34(10), 1227–1245. doi:10.1108/JMD-01-2015-0008.

Hanaysha, J. (2016). Examining the Effects of Employee Empowerment, Teamwork, and Employee Training on Organizational Commitment. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 298–306. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.07.140.

Carnevale, D. G., & Wechsler, B. (1992). Trust in the public sector: Individual and Organizational Determinants. Administration & Society, 23(4), 471–494. doi:10.1177/009539979202300404.

Nyhan, R. C. (2000). Changing the Paradigm. The American Review of Public Administration, 30(1), 87–109. doi:10.1177/02750740022064560.

Vigoda-Gadot, E., & Yuval, F. (2003). Managerial quality, administrative performance and trust in governance revisited: A follow-up study of causality. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 16(7), 502–522. doi:10.1108/09513550310500382.

Ahmad, H., Ahmad, K., & Ali Shah, I. (2010). Relationship between Job Satisfaction, Job Performance Attitude towards Work and Organizational Commitment. European Journal of Social Sciences, 18(2), 257–267.

Masrek, M. N., Johare, R., Saad, M. S. M., Rahim, H., & Masli, J. B. (2012). The required competencies of para-professionals in library services of Sarawak State Libraries. IBIMA Business Review, 2012, 1.

Tanloet, P., & Tuamsuk, K. (2011). Core competencies for information professionals of Thai academic libraries in the next decade (A.D. 2010–2019). International Information and Library Review, 43(3), 122–129. doi:10.1080/10572317.2011.10762889.

Imran, A., Ahmad, S., Nisar, A., & Ahmad, U. (2014). Exploring Relationship among Rewards, Recognition and Employees’ Job Satisfaction: A Descriptive Study on Libraries in Pakistan. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 21(9), 1533–1540.

Savaneviciene, A., & Stankeviciute, Z. (2012). Hrm and Performance Linkage: the Role of Line Managers. Economics and Management, 17(1), 390–396. doi:10.5755/j01.em.17.1.2294.

Saba, I. (2011). Measuring the job satisfaction level of the academic staff in Bahawalpur colleges. International journal of Academic Research in business and Social Sciences, 1(1), 12-19.

Khan, A., Masrek, M. N., & Nadzar, F. M. (2015). Analysis of competencies, job satisfaction and organizational commitment as indicators of job performance: A conceptual framework. Education for Information, 31(3), 125–141. doi:10.3233/EFI-150954.

Choiriyah, S., & Riyanto, S. (2021). Effect of Training and Competence on Job Satisfaction and Its Impact on Employee Commitment (Case Study at BPJS Ketenagakerjaan). Article in International Journal of Innovative Research in Science Engineering and Technology, 6(6), 1021–1030.

Margarita Nikolajevaite, & Egle Sabaityte. (2016). Relationship between Employees’ Competencies and Job Satisfaction: British and Lithuanian Employees. Journal of Psychology Research, 6(11), 684–692. doi:10.17265/2159-5542/2016.11.007.

Lim, S. (2008). Job satisfaction of information technology workers in academic libraries. Library and Information Science Research, 30(2), 115–121. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2007.10.002.

Boles, J., Madupalli, R., Rutherford, B., & Wood, J. A. (2007). The relationship of facets of salesperson job satisfaction with affective organizational commitment. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 22(5), 311–321. doi:10.1108/08858620710773440.

Stander, M. W., & Rothmann, S. (2010). Psychological empowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 36(1), 1–8. doi:10.4102/sajip.v36i1.849.

Knobloch, N. A., & Whittington, M. S. (2003). The Influence of the Initial Ten Weeks of the School Year on Novice Teacher Efficacy in Agricultural Education. NACTA Journal, 47(4), 16–21.

Akinbode, G. A., & Fagbohungbe, O. B. (2012). Leadership and Organizational Factors as Predictors of Employees Organisational Commitment in Nigeria: An Empirical Analysis. Business and Management Research, 1(2), 69–87. doi:10.5430/bmr.v1n2p69.

Riyanto, S., Handiman, U. T., & Prasetya, A. D. (2021). The Role of Work Motivation in Mediating Training and Organizational Culture for Improving Employee Performance. Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences, 48(10), 45-55.

Sujuyigbe, A. S., & Amusat, A. (2012). Staff training and development as managerial tools for organizational effectiveness: An appraisal of First Bank JABU. International Journal of Social and Management Science, 4(1), 100-109.

Forgacs, L. (2009). Recruitment and retention across continents. Journal of Training and development, 63(6), 40-44.

Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2020). Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers, London, United Kingdom.

Dias, Á., & Silva, R. (2016). Organizational Training and Organizational Commitment: A Literature Review and Conceptual Development. IJISET-International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, 3(1), 387–399.

Kanfer, R., Beier, M. E., & Ackerman, P. L. (2013). Goals and motivation related to work in later adulthood: An organizing framework. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(3), 253–264. doi:10.1080/1359432X.2012.734298.

Newman, A., Thanacoody, R., & Hui, W. (2011). The impact of employee perceptions of training on organizational commitment and turnover intentions: A study of multinationals in the Chinese service sector. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(8), 1765–1787. doi:10.1080/09585192.2011.565667.

Brum, S. (2007). What impact does training have on employee commitment and Employee turnover?. Seminar Research Paper Series, Paper 45, University of Rhode Island, South Kingstown, Rhode Island.

James, N., & Waldron, C. (2011). Improving access to employment and training in former coalfields areas in the UK: The Access Alliance Programme. Research in Transportation Business and Management, 2, 20–28. doi:10.1016/j.rtbm.2011.08.002.

Dardar, A. H. A., Jusoh, A., & Rasli, A. (2012). The Impact of Job Training, job satisfaction and Alternative Job Opportunities on Job Turnover in Libyan Oil Companies. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 40, 389–394. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.205.

Jehanzeb, K., Abdul Hamid, A. B., & Rasheed, A. (2015). What Is the Role of Training and Job Satisfaction on Turnover Intentions? International Business Research, 8(3), 208–220. doi:10.5539/ibr.v8n3p208.

Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An Interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874–900. doi:10.1177/0149206305279602.

Alice Kasau, S. (2014). Relationship between Training and Performance: A Case Study of Kenya Women Finance Trust Eastern Nyanya Region, Kenya. European Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(1), 95–117.

Ehrhardt, K., Miller, J. S., Freeman, S. J., & Hom, P. W. (2011). An examination of the relationship between training comprehensiveness and organizational commitment: Further exploration of training perceptions and employee attitudes. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22(4), 459–489. doi:10.1002/hrdq.20086.

McNeese-Smith, D. K. (2001). A nursing shortage: Building organizational commitment among nurses. Journal of Healthcare Management, 46(3), 173–187. doi:10.1097/00115514-200105000-00008.

Tan, T. H., & Lim, Y. K. (2012). Organizational commitment as a moderator of the effect of training on service performance: An empirical study of small to medium-sized enterprises in Malaysia. International Journal of Management, 29(1), 65-76.

Chiang, C. F., Back, K. J., & Canter, D. D. (2005). The impact of employee training on job satisfaction and intention to stay in the hotel industry. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality and Tourism, 4(2), 99–118. doi:10.1300/J171v04n02_06.

Leppel, K., Brucker, E., & Cochran, J. (2012). The Importance of Job Training to Job Satisfaction of Older Workers. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 24(1), 62–76. doi:10.1080/08959420.2012.629136.

Sabir, R. I., Akhtar, N., Bukhari, F. A. S., Nasir, J., & Ahmed, W. (2014). Impact of training on productivity of employees: A Case study of electricity supply company in Pakistan. International Review of Management and Business Research, 3(2), 595-606.

Yadav, D. S., Sood, P., Thakur, S. K., & Choudhary, A. K. (2013). Assessing the training needs of agricultural extension workers about organic farming in the North-Western Himalayas. Journal of organic systems, 8(1), 17-27.

Roehl, W. S., & Swerdlow, S. (1999). Training and its impact on organizational commitment among lodging employees. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 23(2), 176–194. doi:10.1177/109634809902300205.

Ismail, H. N. (2016). Training and organizational commitment: Exploring the moderating role of goal orientation in the Lebanese context. Human Resource Development International, 19(2), 152–177. doi:10.1080/13678868.2015.1118220.

Turkyilmaz, A., Akman, G., Ozkan, C., & Pastuszak, Z. (2011). Empirical study of public sector employee loyalty and satisfaction. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 111(5), 675–696. doi:10.1108/02635571111137250.

Athey, T. R., & Orth, M. S. (1999). Emerging competency methods for the future. Human Resource Management, 38(3), 215–225. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-050X(199923)38:3<215::AID-HRM4>3.0.CO;2-W.

Zaim, H., Yaşar, M. F., & Ünal, Ö. F. (2013). Analyzing the Effects of Individual Competencies on Performance: A Field Study In Services Industries in Turkey. Journal of Global Strategic Management, 2(7), 67–67. doi:10.20460/jgsm.2013715668.

Escrig-Tena, A. B., & Bou-Llusar, J. C. (2005). A model for evaluating organizational competencies: An application in the context of a Quality Management initiative. Decision Sciences, 36(2), 221–257. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5414.2005.00072.x.

Rong, R., Chen, W., Dai, Z., Gu, J., Chen, W., Zhou, Y., Kuang, M., & Xiao, H. (2021). Improvement of the management of mental well-being and empathy in Chinese medical students: a randomized controlled study. BMC Medical Education, 21(1), 1–10. doi:10.1186/s12909-021-02813-6.

Gul, H., Usman, M., Liu, Y., Rehman, Z., & Jebran, K. (2018). Does the effect of power distance moderate the relation between person environment fit and job satisfaction leading to job performance? Evidence from Afghanistan and Pakistan. Future Business Journal, 4(1), 68–83. doi:10.1016/j.fbj.2017.12.001.

Peng, Y., & Mao, C. (2015). The Impact of Person–Job Fit on Job Satisfaction: The Mediator Role of Self Efficacy. Social Indicators Research, 121(3), 805–813. doi:10.1007/s11205-014-0659-x.

Judge, T. A., Erez, A., Bono, J. E., & Thoresen, C. J. (2003). The core self-evaluations scale: Development of a measure. Personnel Psychology, 56(2), 303–331. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00152.x.

Ko, W. H. (2012). The relationships among professional competence, job satisfaction and career development confidence for chefs in Taiwan. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(3), 1004–1011. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.12.004.

Kucharska, W., & Erickson, G. S. (2020). The influence of IT-competency dimensions on job satisfaction, knowledge sharing and performance across industries. VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, 50(3), 387–407. doi:10.1108/VJIKMS-06-2019-0098.

Hoppock, R. (1935). Job satisfaction. Harper, New York, United States.

Siddique, U., & Farooqi, Y. A. (2014). Investigating the Relationship between Occupational Stress, Motivation and Job Satisfaction among University Teachers (A Case of University of Gujrat). International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 3(4), 36–46. doi:10.6007/ijarped/v3-i4/965.

Aydogdu, S., & Asikgil, B. (2011). An empirical study of the relationship among job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention. International review of management and marketing, 1(3), 43-53.

Testa, M. R. (2001). Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Effort in the Service Environment. The Journal of Psychology, 135(2), 226–236. doi:10.1080/00223980109603693.

Hart, G. (2010). Job Satisfaction in a South African Academic Library in Transition. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36(1), 53–62. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2009.11.006.

Kaushik, S., & Somvir. (2012). Job Satisfaction among Library Professionals in Haryana State. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2(5), 1–4.

García-Aracil, A., & Van Der Velden, R. (2008). Competencies for young European higher education graduates: Labor market mismatches and their payoffs. Higher Education, 55(2), 219–239. doi:10.1007/s10734-006-9050-4.

Gowda, M.P. (2009). Satisfaction levels related to management issues among LIS professionals, Annals of Library and Information Studies 56, 227–235.

Bhuian, S. N., & Menguc, B. (2002). An extension and evaluation of job characteristics, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an expatriate, guest worker, sales setting. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 22(1), 1–11. doi:10.1080/08853134.2002.10754288.

Hedge, J. W., & Borman, W. C. (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Work and Aging. Oxford University Press, New York, United States. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195385052.001.0001.

Saif, N. I., & Saleh, A. S. (2013). Psychological empowerment and job satisfaction in Jordanian hospitals. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(16), 250–257.

Bakotić, D., & Fiskovića, C. (2013). Relationship between Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction: The Case of Croatian Shipbuilding Company. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(2), 206–213.

Connolly, K. M., & Myers, J. E. (2003). Wellness and mattering: The role of holistic factors in job satisfaction. Journal of Employment Counseling, 40(4), 152–160. doi:10.1002/j.2161-1920.2003.tb00866.x.

Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2003). Organizational Behavior. Pearson Education, New Jersey, United States.

Porter, L. W. (1961). A study of perceived need satisfactions in bottom and middle management jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 45(1), 1–10. doi:10.1037/h0043121.

Spector, P. E. (1985). Measurement of human service staff satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13(6), 693–713. doi:10.1007/BF00929796.

Agho, A. O., Price, J. L., & Mueller, C. W. (1992). Discriminant validity of measures of job satisfaction, positive affectivity and negative affectivity. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 65(3), 185–195. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8325.1992.tb00496.x.

Grissom, J. A., Nicholson-Crotty, J., & Keiser, L. (2012). Does my Boss’s gender matter? Explaining job satisfaction and employee turnover in the public sector. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 22(4), 649–673. doi:10.1093/jopart/mus004.

Hartmann, N. N., Rutherford, B. N., Feinberg, R., & Anderson, J. G. (2014). Antecedents of mentoring: Do multi-faceted job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment matter? Journal of Business Research, 67(9), 2039–2044. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.10.006.

Eleswed, M., & Mohammed, F. (2013). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment: A correlational study in Bahrain. International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology, 3(5), 43–53.

Mueller, C. W., & Price, J. L. (1990). Economic, psychological, and sociological determinants of voluntary turnover. The Journal of Behavioral Economics, 19(3), 321–335. doi:10.1016/0090-5720(90)90034-5.

Eugenia Sánchez Vidal, M., Valle, R. S., & Isabel Barba Aragón, M. (2007). Antecedents of repatriates’ job satisfaction and its influence on turnover intentions: Evidence from Spanish repatriated managers. Journal of Business Research, 60(12), 1272–1281. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.05.004.

Wu, W. Y., Tsai, C. C., & Fu, C. S. (2013). The relationships among internal marketing, job satisfaction, relationship marketing, customer orientation, and organizational performance: An empirical study of TFT-LCD companies in Taiwan. Human Factors and Ergonomics In Manufacturing, 23(5), 436–449. doi:10.1002/hfm.20329.

Chung-Yan, G. A. (2010). The Nonlinear Effects of Job Complexity and Autonomy on Job Satisfaction, Turnover, and Psychological Well-Being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(3), 237–251. doi:10.1037/a0019823.

Kurland, H., & Hasson-Gilad, D. R. (2015). Organizational learning and extra effort: The mediating effect of job satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 49, 56–67. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2015.02.010.

Kwan, P. (2011). Examining the mediating effect of job satisfaction on the relation between responsibilities and career aspiration of vice-principals. International Journal of Educational Research, 50(5–6), 349–361. doi:10.1016/j.ijer.2011.11.004.

Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (1992). Examining the Causal Order of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment. Journal of Management, 18(1), 153–167. doi:10.1177/014920639201800110.

Tripp, J. F., Riemenschneider, C. K., & Thatcher, J. B. (2016). Job satisfaction in agile development teams: Agile development as work redesign. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 17(4), 267–307. doi:10.17705/1jais.00426.

Hakim, I. A., Harris, R., Garland, L., Cordova, C. A., Mikhael, D. M., & Chow, H. H. S. (2012). Gender difference in systemic oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in current and former heavy smokers. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 21(12), 2193–2200. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0820.

Borgogni, L., Dello Russo, S., Miraglia, M., & Vecchione, M. (2013). The role of self-efficacy and job satisfaction on absences from work. Revue Europeenne de Psychologie Appliquee, 63(3), 129–136. doi:10.1016/j.erap.2012.08.007.

Azadeh, A., & Mousavi Ahranjani, P. (2014). The impact of job security, satisfaction and stress on performance assessment and optimization of generation companies. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 32, 343–348. doi:10.1016/j.jlp.2014.10.002.

Ajibade, O., & Ayinla, K. (2014). Investigating the effect of training on employees’ commitment: An empirical study of a discount house in Nigeria. Megatrend Revija, 11(3), 7–18. doi:10.5937/megrev1403007a.

Deepa, E., Palaniswamy, R., & Kuppusamy, S. (2014). Effect of Performance Appraisal System in Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Productivity. Journal of Contemporary Management Research, 8(1), 1-72.

Kemp, P. E. (1967). Commitment and job satisfaction. Journal of Cooperative Extension, 171–177.

Leong, J. (2008). Academic reference librarians prepare for change: An Australian case study. Library Management, 29(1–2), 77–86. doi:10.1108/01435120810844667.

Miller, D., & Lee, J. (2001). The people make the process: Commitment to employees, decision making, and performance. Journal of Management, 27(2), 163–189. doi:10.1016/S0149-2063(00)00094-5.

Cooper-Hakim, A., & Viswesvaran, C. (2005). The construct of work commitment: Testing an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 131(2), 241–259. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.131.2.241.

Dordevic, B. (2004). Employee Commitment in Times of Radical Organizational Changes. Economics and Organization, 2(2), 111–117.

Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Gellatly, I. R. (1990). Affective and Continuance Commitment to the Organization: Evaluation of Measures and Analysis of Concurrent and Time-Lagged Relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(6), 710–720. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.75.6.710.

Brunetto, Y., & Farr-Wharton, R. (2003). The commitment and satisfaction of lower-ranked police officers: lessons for management. Policing: International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 26(1), 43-63. doi:10.1108/13639510310460297.

Peng, P., Namkung, J., Barnes, M., & Sun, C. (2016). A meta-analysis of mathematics and working memory: Moderating effects of working memory domain, type of mathematics skill, and sample characteristics. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(4), 455. doi:10.1037/edu0000079.

Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2021). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications, London, United Kingdom. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-80519-7.

Henseler, J., Dijkstra, T. K., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Diamantopoulos, A., Straub, D. W., Ketchen, D. J., Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., & Calantone, R. J. (2014). Common Beliefs and Reality About PLS: Comments on Rönkkö and Evermann (2013). Organizational Research Methods, 17(2), 182–209. doi:10.1177/1094428114526928.

Ghozali, I. (2014). Structural Equation Modelling Alternatif Method with Partial Least Squares (PLS) Edisi 4. University of Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia.

Avkiran, N. K., & Ringle, C. M. (Eds.). (2018). Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling. International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, Springer, Cham, Switzerland. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-71691-6.

Rajabipoor M.A., Dehghani, M., & Dehghani, M. (2016). The relationship between Islamic work ethic and organizational commitment and job satisfaction of nurses. Bioethics Journal, 2(6), 49–92.

Rowden, R. W., & Conine, C. T. (2005). The impact of workplace learning on job satisfaction in small US commercial banks. Journal of Workplace Learning, 17(4), 215–230. doi:10.1108/13665620510597176.

Wright, T. A., & Bonett, D. G. (2007). Job satisfaction and psychological well-being as non-additive predictors of workplace turnove. Journal of Management, 33(2), 141–160. doi:10.1177/0149206306297582.

Qureshi, M. A., Qureshi, J. A., Thebo, J. A., Shaikh, G. M., Brohi, N. A., & Qaiser, S. (2019). The nexus of employee’s commitment, job satisfaction, and job performance: An analysis of FMCG industries of Pakistan. Cogent Business and Management, 6(1), 1654189. doi:10.1080/23311975.2019.1654189.

Adamopoulos, I., Syrou, N., Lamnisos, D., & Boustras, G. (2023). Cross-sectional nationwide study in occupational safety & health: Inspection of job risks context, burn out syndrome and job satisfaction of public health Inspectors in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic in Greece. Safety Science, 158, 105960. doi: 10.1016/j.ssci.2022.105960.

Gazioglu, S., & Tansel, A. (2006). Job satisfaction in Britain: Individual and job related factors. Applied Economics, 38(10), 1163–1171. doi:10.1080/00036840500392987.

Tarasco, J. A., & Damato, N. A. (2006). Build a better career path. Journal of Accountancy, 201(5), 1-37.

Alamri, M. S., & Al-Duhaim, T. I. (2017). Employees Perception of Training and Its Relationship with Organizational Commitment among the Employees Working at Saudi Industrial Development Fund. International Journal of Business Administration, 8(2), 25. doi:10.5430/ijba.v8n2p25.

Gazi, M. A. I., Islam, M. A., Sobhani, F. A., & Dhar, B. K. (2022). Does job satisfaction differ at different levels of employees? Measurement of job satisfaction among the levels of sugar industrial employees. Sustainability, 14(6), 3564. doi:10.3390/su14063564.

Hartline, M. D., & Ferrell, O.C. (1996). The Management of Customer-Contact Service Employees: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Marketing, 60(4), 52–70. doi:10.1177/002224299606000406.

Malik, M. E., Nawab, S., Naeem, B., & Danish, R. Q. (2010). Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of University Teachers in Public Sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(6), 17–26. doi:10.5539/ijbm.v5n6p17.

Samad, S., & Selangor, S. A. (2005). Unravelling the organizational commitment and job performance relationship: Exploring the moderating effect of job satisfaction. The Business Review, 4(2), 79-84.

Ting, Y. (1997). Determinants of job satisfaction of federal government employees. Public Personnel Management, 26(3), 313–334. doi:10.1177/009102609702600302.

Coyle-Shapiro, J. A. M., & Kessler, I. (2003). The Employment Relationship in the U.K. Public Sector: A Psychological Contract Perspective. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 13(2), 213–230. doi:10.1093/jpart/mug018.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/ESJ-2023-07-02-016


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Setyo Riyanto