Role of Self-Efficacy and Negative Perfectionism in the Prediction of Procrastination of Narcissistic Personality: A Study on Non-Clinical Subjects
The present research was performed to investigate the role of self-efficacy and negative perfectionism in the prediction of procrastination of narcissistic personality. This is a descriptive research of correlational type for which performance a total of 412 students were selected via random multi-stage sampling method. In order to examine the research hypothesis and accomplish the research objective, the participants were provided with a questionnaire composed of Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16, General Procrastination Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale. Collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple regression. Results of the research indicated significant associations between self-efficacy, negative perfectionism, and narcissism, in one hand, and procrastination, on the other hand, so that, as variables, self-efficacy, negative perfectionism, and narcissism could explain 10% of the variance in procrastination. Results of the present research indicated the importance of self-efficacy, negative perfectionism, and narcissism in the development and exacerbation of procrastination, and placed an emphasis on the necessity of paying attention to the role of such effective antecedents by mental health-related authorities, so as to reduce procrastination.
Lamkin, J., J. A. Lavner, and A. Shaffer. “Narcissism and observed communication in couples.” Personality and Individual Differences 105, (2017): 224-228. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.09.046.
Zeigler-Hill, V., and D. R. C. Trombly. “Narcissism and mate value: Is beauty in the eye of the narcissistic beholder?” Personality and Individual Differences 122, (2018): 115-119. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.10.021.
Kealy, D., J. S. Ogrodniczuk, S. M. Rice, and J. L. Oliffe. “Pathological narcissism and maladaptive self-regulatory behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Canadian men.” Psychiatry Research 256, (2017): 156-161. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.06.009.
Ronningstam, E. “Narcissistic personality disorder: a clinical perspective.” Journal of Psychiatric Practice 17, no. 2 (2011): 89-99. doi: 10.1097/01.pra.0000396060.67150.40.
Wardecker, B. M., W. J. Chopik, O. P. LaBelle, and R. S. Edelstein. “Is narcissism associated with baseline cortisol in men and women?” Journal of Research in Personality 72, (2018): 44-49. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2016.07.006.
Ogrodniczuk, J. S. (Ed.). “Understanding and treating pathological narcissism.” Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, (2013). doi: 10.1037/14041-000.
Ronningstam, E. “Beyond the diagnostic traits: A collaborative exploratory diagnostic process for dimensions and underpinnings of narcissistic personality disorder.” Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment 5, no. 4 (2014): 434-438. doi: 10.1037/per0000034.
Foster, J. D., and W. K. Campbell. “Are there such things as "Narcissists" in social psychology? A taxometric analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory.” Personality and Individual Differences 43, no. 6 (2007): 1321-1332. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.04.003
Carroll, P. J., R. M. Arkin, and A. L. Wichman. (Eds.). “Handbook of Personal Security.” New York, NY, US: Psychology Press, (2015).
Widiger, T. A. “In defense of narcissistic personality traits.” Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment 1, no. 3 (2010): 192-194. doi: 10.1037/a0020199.
Miller, J. D., and W. K. Campbell. “Comparing clinical and social-personality conceptualizations of narcissism.” Journal of Personality 76, no. 3 (2008): 449-476. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00492.x.
Miller, J. D., and W. K. Campbell. “The case for using research on trait narcissism as a building block for understanding narcissistic personality disorder.” Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment 1, no. 3 (2010): 180-191. doi: 10.1037/a0018229.
Pincus, A. L. “The Pathological Narcissism Inventory.” In J. S. Ogrodniczuk (Ed.), Understanding and treating pathological narcissism (pp. 93-110). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, (2013). doi: 10.1037/14041-006.
Eckert, M., D. D. Ebert, D. Lehr, B. Sieland, and M. Berking. “Overcome procrastination: Enhancing emotion regulation skills reduce procrastination.” Learning and Individual Differences 52, (2016): 10-18. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2016.10.001.
Klingsieck, K. B. “Procrastination: When good things don’t come to those who wait.” European Psychologist 18, no. 1 (2013): 24-34. doi: 10.1027/1016-9040/a000138.
Rebetez, M. M. L., C. Barsics, L. Rochat, A. D’Argembeau, and M. Van der Linden. “Procrastination, consideration of future consequences, and episodic future thinking.” Consciousness and Cognition 42, (2016): 286-292. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2016.04.003.
Ferrari, J. R., J. O'Callaghan, and I. Newbegin. “Prevalence of Procrastination in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia: Arousal and Avoidance Delays among Adults.” North American Journal of Psychology 7, no. 1 (2005): 1-6.
Ferrari, J. R., B. U. Özer, and A. Demir. “Chronic procrastination among Turkish adults: exploring decisional, avoidant, and arousal styles.” The Journal of Social Psychology 149, no. 3 (2009): 402-408. doi: 10.3200/SOCP.149.3.402-408.
Schouwenburg, H. C. “Procrastination in Academic Settings: General Introduction.” In H. C. Schouwenburg, C. H. Lay, T. A. Pychyl, & J. R. Ferrari (Eds.), Counseling the procrastinator in academic settings (pp. 3-17). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, (2004). doi: 10.1037/10808-001.
van Eerde, W. “A meta-analytically derived nomological network of procrastination.” Personality and Individual Differences 35, no. 6 (2003): 1401-1418. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00358-6.
Baumeister, R. F., T. F. Heatherton, and D. M. Tice. “Losing control: How and why people fail at self-regulation.” San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press, (1994).
Schouwenburg, H. C., and J. T. Groenewoud. “Study motivation under social temptation; effects of trait procrastination.” Personality and Individual Differences 30, no. 2 (2001): 229-240. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00034-9.
Steel, P. “The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure.” Psychological Bulletin 133, no. 1 (2007): 65-94. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.65.
Fernie, B. A., Z. Bharucha, A. V. Nikčević, C. Marino, and M. M. Spada. “A Metacognitive model of procrastination.” Journal of Affective Disorders 210, (2017): 196-203.
Grunschel, C., J. Patrzek, and S. Fries. “Exploring different types of academic delayers: A latent profile analysis.” Learning and Individual Differences 23, (2013): 225-233. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2012.09.014.
Lukas, C. A., and M. Berking. “Reducing procrastination using a smartphone-based treatment program: A randomized controlled pilot study.” Internet Interventions 12, (2018): 83-90. doi: 10.1016/j.invent.2017.07.002.
Fee, R. L., and J. P. Tangney. “Procrastination: A means of avoiding shame or guilt?” Journal of Social Behavior & Personality 15, no. 5 (2000): 167-184.
Stead, R., M. J. Shanahan, and R. W. J. Neufeld. “I’ll go to therapy, eventually: Procrastination, stress and mental health.” Personality and Individual Differences 49, no. 3 (2010): 175-180. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.03.028.
Klibert, J., J. Langhinrichsen-Rohling, A. Luna, and M. Robichaux. “Suicide proneness in college students: relationships with gender, procrastination, and achievement motivation.” Death Studies 35, no. 7 (2011): 625-645. doi: 10.1080/07481187.2011.553311.
Rozental, A., and P. Carlbring. “Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for procrastination: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.” JMIR Research Protocols 2, no. 2 (2013): e46. doi: 10.2196/resprot.2801.
Klassen, R. M., L. L. Krawchuk, and S. Rajani. “Academic procrastination of undergraduates: Low self-efficacy to self-regulate predicts higher levels of procrastination.” Contemporary Educational Psychology 33, no. 4 (2008): 915-931. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2007.07.001.
Wäschle, K., A. Allgaier, A. Lachner, S. Fink, and M. Nückles. “Procrastination and self-efficacy: Tracing vicious and virtuous circles in self-regulated learning.” Learning and Instruction 29, (2014): 103-114. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2013.09.005.
Ferrari, J. R. “Dysfunctional procrastination and its relationship with self-esteem, interpersonal dependency, and self-defeating behaviors.” Personality and Individual Differences 17, no. 5 (1994): 673-679. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)90140-6.
Brookes, J. “The effect of overt and covert narcissism on self-esteem and self-efficacy beyond self-esteem.” Personality and Individual Differences 85, (2015): 172-175. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.013.
Butz, A. R., and E. L. Usher. “Salient sources of early adolescents' self-efficacy in two domains.” Contemporary Educational Psychology 42, (2015): 49-61. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2015.04.001.
Chesnut, S. R. “On the measurement of preservice teacher commitment: Examining the relationship between four operational definitions and self-efficacy beliefs.” Teaching and Teacher Education 68, (2017): 170-180. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2017.09.003.
Cuevas, C., K. T. Wolff, and M. T. Baglivio. “Self-efficacy, aspirations, and residential placement outcomes: Why belief in a prosocial self-matters.” Journal of Criminal Justice 52, (2017): 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2017.06.006.
Bandura, A. “Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.” Psychological Review 84, no. 2 (1977): 191-215. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191.
Allred, S. L., L. D. Harrison, and D. J. O'Connell. “Self-efficacy: an important aspect of prison-based learning.” The Prison Journal 93, no. 2 (2013): 211-233. doi: 10.1177/0032885512472964.
Chesnut, S. R., and H. Burley. “Self-efficacy as a predictor of commitment to the teaching profession: A meta-analysis.” Educational Research Review 15, (2015): 1-16. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2015.02.001.
Bandura, A. “Self-efficacy determinants of anticipated fears and calamities.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45, no. 2 (1983): 464-469. doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1244.
Bandura, A. “Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning.” Educational Psychologist 28, no. 2 (1993): 117-148. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep2802_3.
Bandura, A. “Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency.” American Psychologist 37, no. 2 (1982): 122-147. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.37.2.122.
Bandura, A. (Ed.). “Self-efficacy in changing societies.” New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, (1995).doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511527692.
Egan, S. J., T. D. Wade, and R. Shafran. “Perfectionism as a transdiagnostic process: A clinical review.” Clinical Psychology Review 31, no. 2 (2011): 203-212. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.04.009.
Flett, G. L., P. L. Hewitt, R. A. Davis, and S. B. Sherry. “Description and Counseling of the Perfectionistic Procrastinator.” In H. C. Schouwenburg, C. H. Lay, T. A. Pychyl, & J. R. Ferrari (Eds.), Counseling the procrastinator in academic settings (pp. 181-194). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, (2004). doi: 10.1037/10808-013.
Sherry, S. B., J. Stoeber, and C. Ramasubbu. “Perfectionism explains variance in self-defeating behaviors beyond self-criticism: Evidence from a cross-national sample.” Personality and Individual Differences 95, (2016): 196-199. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.059.
Smith, M. M., S. B. Sherry, D. H. Saklofske, and A. R. Mushqaush. “Clarifying the perfectionism-procrastination relationship using a 7-day, 14-occasion daily diary study.” Personality and Individual Differences 112, (2017): 117-123. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.02.059.
Oddo-Sommerfeld, S., S. Hain, F. Louwen, and K. Schermelleh-Engel. “Longitudinal effects of dysfunctional perfectionism and avoidant personality style on postpartum mental disorders: Pathways through antepartum depression and anxiety.” Journal of Affective Disorders 191, (2016): 280-288.
Shim, S. S., L. D. Rubenstein, and C. W. Drapeau. “When perfectionism is coupled with low achievement: The effects on academic engagement and help seeking in middle school.” Learning and Individual Differences 45, (2016): 237-244. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2015.12.016.
Stoeber, J., R. A. Harris, and P. S. Moon. “Perfectionism and the experience of pride, shame, and guilt: Comparing healthy perfectionists, unhealthy perfectionists, and non-perfectionists.” Personality and Individual Differences 43, no. 1 (2007): 131-141. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.11.012.
Hamachek, D. E. “Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism.” Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior 15, no. 1 (1978): 27-33.
Terry-Short, L. A., R. Glynn Owens, P. D. Slade, and M. E. Dewey. “Positive and negative perfectionism.” Personality and Individual Differences 18, no. 5 (1995): 663-668. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)00192-U.
James, K., B. Verplanken, and K. A. Rimes. “Self-criticism as a mediator in the relationship between unhealthy perfectionism and distress.” Personality and Individual Differences 79, (2015): 123-128. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.01.030.
Hill, R. W., T. J. Huelsman, and G. Araujo. “Perfectionistic concerns suppress associations between perfectionistic strivings and positive life outcomes.” Personality and Individual Differences 48, no. 5 (2010): 584-589. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2009.12.011.
Stoeber, J. “Perfectionism in sport and dance: A double-edged sword.” International Journal of Sport Psychology 45, no. 4 (2014): 385-394. Retrieved from https://kar.kent.ac.uk/41917/
Howell, J. A., P. M. McEvoy, B. Grafton, C. Macleod, R. T. Kane, R. A. Anderson, and S. J. Egan. “Selective attention in perfectionism: Dissociating valence from perfectionism-relevance.” Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 51, (2016): 100-108. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2016.01.004.
Gelabert, E., S. Subirà, L. García-Esteve, P. Navarro, A. Plaza, E. Cuyàs, R. Navinés, M. Gratacòs, M. Valdés, R. Martín-Santos. “Perfectionism dimensions in major postpartum depression.” Journal of Affective Disorders 136, (2012): 17-25.
Stoeber, J., and K. Otto. “Positive conceptions of perfectionism: Approaches, evidence, challenges.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 10, no. 4 (2006): 295-319. doi: 10.1207/s15327957pspr1004_2.
Ames, D. R., P. Rose, and C. P. Anderson. “The NPI-16 as a short measure of narcissism.” Journal of Research in Personality 40, no. 4 (2006): 440-450. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2005.03.002.
Mohammadzadeh, A. “Iranian validation of the narcissistic personality inventory-16 (Persian).” Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health 11, no. 44 (2010): 274-281.
Lay, C. H. “At last, my research article on procrastination.” Journal of Research in Personality 20, no. 4 (1986): 474-495. doi: 10.1016/0092-6566(86)90127-3.
Ferrari, J. R. “Reliability of academic and dispositional measure of procrastination.” Psychological Reports 64, no. 3 (1989): 1057-1058.
Ferrari, J. R., J. L. Johnson, and W. G. McCown. “The Plenum series in social/clinical psychology. Procrastination and task avoidance: Theory, research, and treatment.” New York, NY, US: Plenum Press, (1995). doi: 10.1007/978-1-4899-0227-6.
Hosseini, F., and M. Khayyer. “Prediction of Behavioral and Decisional Procrastination Considering Meta-Cognition Beliefs in University Students (Persian).” Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology 15, no. 3 (2009): 265-273.
Schwarzer, R., and M. Jerusalem. “Generalized Self-Efficacy scale.” In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston, Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON, (1995).
Nezami, E., R. Schwarzer, and M. Jerusalem. “Persian Adaptation (Farsi) of the General Self-Efficacy Scale.” (1996). Retrieved from http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~health/persean.htm
Schwarzer, R., J. Bäßler, P. Kwiatek, K. Schröder, and J. X. Zhang. “The assessment of optimistic self-beliefs: Comparison of the German, Spanish, and Chinese versions of the General Self-efficacy Scale.” Applied Psychology: An International Review 46, no. 1 (1997): 69-88. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.1997.tb01096.x.
Rajabi, G. R. “Reliability and validity of the General Self-Efficacy Beliefs Scale (GSE-10) comparing the psychology students of Shahid Chamrin University and Azad University of Marvdasht (Persian).” New Thoughts on Education 2, no. 1-2 (2006): 111-122.
Goldberg, D. P. “The detection of psychiatric illness by questionnaire: A technique for the identification and assessment of non-psychotic psychiatric illness.” Oxford, England: Oxford U. Press, (1972).
Coopersmith, S. “The antecedents of self-esteem.” San Francisco, CA, US: W. H. Freeman, (1967).
Besharat, M. A. “Relation of positive and negative perfectionism with defense mechanisms (Persian).” Psychological Research 8, no. 1-2 (2005): 7-22.
Caprara, G. V., R. Fida, M. Vecchione, G. Del Bove, G. M. Vecchio, C. Barbaranelli, and A. Bandura. “Longitudinal analysis of the role of perceived self-efficacy for self-regulated learning in academic continuance and achievement.” Journal of Educational Psychology 100, no. 3 (2008): 525-534. doi: 10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.1995.
Sirois, F. M. “Procrastination and intentions to perform health behaviors: The role of self-efficacy and the consideration of future consequences.” Personality and Individual Differences 37, no. 1 (2004): 115-128. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2003.08.005.
Mann, M. P. “The adverse influence of narcissistic injury and perfectionism on college students' institutional attachment.” Personality and Individual Differences 36, no. 8 (2004): 1797-1806. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2003.07.001.
Ronningstam, E., and A. R. Baskin-Sommers. “Fear and decision-making in narcissistic personality disorder—a link between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.” Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 15, no. 2 (2013): 191-201. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3811090/
Sigall, H., A. Kruglanski, and J. Fyock. “Wishful thinking and procrastination.” Journal of Social Behavior & Personality 15, no. 5 (2000): 283-296.
Schouwenburg, H. C., and C. H. Lay. “Trait procrastination and the Big Five factors of personality.” Personality and Individual Differences 18, no. 4 (1995): 481-490. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)00176-S.
Ronningstam, E. “Intersect between self-esteem and emotion regulation in narcissistic personality disorder - implications for alliance building and treatment.” Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation 4, no. 3 (2017). doi: 10.1186/s40479-017-0054-8.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2018 Hamed Jabbari Ghazi Jahani, Azadeh Ehsanikenari, Afsaneh Sadat Sharif